# 202 base-2 notations from the Planck scale render a highly-integrated model of the universe

###### Last update: 8 August 2017

Introduction
In December 2011 two teachers and about 80 high school students rather naïvely began to explore a geometric progression that first went down in size to the Planck Length then reversed to go back up all the way to the Observable Universe (most links open a tab or window and go to an in-depth Wikipedia page).

The first chart to be developed, pictured on the left, measures 60×11 inches. It is a view of the entire universe and has just over 200 base-2 exponential notations (dividing or multiplying by 2, over and over again). Thinking that this simple math was already part of academic work, they began asking friends and family, “What is right or wrong within our logic for this model?” A two-year search did not uncover any references to base-2 and the Planck Length.* In that time, asking around locally and then globally, many people were puzzled and asked, “Why haven’t we seen a base-2 scale of the universe before now?”

An Integrated Universe View
Dubbed Big Board – little universe, this project started as a curiosity; today, it is an on-going study to analyze and develop the logic and potential links from their simple mathematics to all the current mathematics that define the universe, all its parts, everything from everywhere, and from the beginning of time to this very moment in time. Their hope is that this simple logic has simple links to real realities. Their standing invitation is, Open To Everyone, to help. This chart follows the progressions from the smallest to the largest possible measurement of a length. Subsequent charts engage the other Planck base units. With more questions than answers, this group is trying to grasp the logic flows in light of current academic-scientific research. Progress is slow.

____________

Yes, on December 19, 2011 the geometry classes in a New Orleans high school were introduced to the chart on the left (Planck Length to the Observable Universe). In December 2014 they began to track Planck Time to the Age of the Universe. When they added the other the Planck base units to each maximum value, it seemed to call out for a horizontally-scrolled chart to follow each line of data more easily. Natural inflation becomes self-evident. And, that opened the way to question the big bang theory, especially the first four epochs — the Planck Epoch, the Grand Unification Epoch, the Inflationary Epoch, and Electroweak Epoch. In their search for answers about this model, questions abound.

What’s next?
They ask, “Where are the informed critics to tell us where we are going wrong?” One rather brilliant, young physicist told them that the concept for this project is idiosyncratic. They quickly learned how right he was. Nobel laureates and scholars of the highest caliber were asked, “What is wrong with our picture? Where is our fallacy of misplaced concreteness?” The group is slowly analyzing the logic and developing their thoughts as web postings with the hope that somebody will say, “That’s wrong” and be able to tell them in what ways they have failed logically and mathematically.

If not wrong, the extension of their basic logic could begin to yield rather far-reaching results. For example, the Big Bang theory could get a special addendum, the first 67 notations. That would make it simple, symmetric (entirely relational), predictive, and totally other. The entire universe could get an infrastructure of geometries whereby many issues in physics, chemistry and biology could be redressed. The finite-infinite relation is opened for new inquiries. In this model of the universe, time-and-space are derivative of two quantitative qualities of infinity: continuity-and-symmetry. As a result, these derivative relations begin to have an inherent qualitative or value structure. If so, ethics and the studies of the Mind (the discernment of qualities) just might, for the first time in history, become part of a scientific-mathematical continuum. A trifurcated definition of the individual may emerge whereby people are simultaneously within the small scale, human scale, and large scale universe. Embracing a different sense of the nature of space and time by which both are localized by notation is surely enough; yet there will always be more. There are many working postings that have been written since their first chart; all of it needs constant updating. Many can be found through the top navigation bar option, INDEX.

Notes, lesson plans and posts (and all new posts) are being consolidated and linked from this homepage. Now called, The Big Board – little universe Project, it is a Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics (STEM) application. Secondary schools from around the world are being invited to join the exploration. Daily work on the topic is being researched, developed, and communicated through a sister website, http://81018.com.

The earliest postings and blogs were done by Bruce Camber within a section of his website — SmallBusinessSchool.org. That site supports a television series, Small Business School, that he and his wife, Hattie Bryant, started. It aired for 50 seasons on most PBS-TV stations throughout the USA and on thousands around the world via the Voice of America-TV affiliates.

Articles and blogs have been posted on WordPress, LinkedIn, Blogger, and Facebook (often those links open in new windows). An April 2012 article, formatted for and displayed within Wikipedia for a few weeks, was deleted on May 2, 2012 as “original research” by highly-specialized Wikipedia editors. Only then did this little group of teachers and students finally begin to believe that base-2 notation had not already been applied to the Planck base units. And, as they have grown in their analyses, it has become increasingly clear that this area of simple math and simple logic is a relatively new exploration and that notations 1-to-67 may be a key to unlock a new understanding of the nature of physical reality.

The challenge is to study the logic flow within their many charts, all based on the Planck base units, both up and down and across, to build on the question, “Is this logic simple and consistent? What does it imply about the nature of the universe?”

So, even now, there is much more to come. At the end of the year, 2015, a Lettermanesque Top Ten was added. In January 2016 an article, Constructing the Universe from Scratch, emerged. In April 2016 the horizontally-scrolled chart provided a better sense of the flow and of phase transitions. Still a “rough draft” this project has a long way to go! Bruce Camber says, “You are most welcome to add your comments, questions, ideas and insights!

*****

* Footnote: In 1957 Kees Boeke did a very limited base-10 progression of just 40 steps. It became quite popular. In July 2014, physicists, Gerard ‘t Hooft and Stefan Vandoren wrote a scholarly update using base-10. Notwithstanding, base-2 is 3.3333+ times more granular than base-10 plus it mimics cellular reproduction and other naturally bifurcating processes in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, topology, botany, architecture, cellular automaton and information theory; it has a geometry; it has the Planck base units, and, it has a simple logic and so much more.

at camber – (at) – bblu.org or click here for more contact information. Thank you.

# Burst the big bang bubble!

## It lacks continuity, symmetry and harmony.

In the Big Board-little universe model using base-2 notation from the Planck Time to the Age of the universe, the entire physical universe is contained within just over 200 notations that are highly-integrated and totally-predictive. Notations are also known as clusters, doublings, groups, sets or steps. Within the first second of the universe (between notations 143 and 144), there is more than enough “natural inflation” from the Planck Charge to get “things” going. As a result of studying and working with this model since December 2011, there are many-many facets to explore, however one of the most important is that this model logically suggests that time is derivative and that the finite and the infinite are perhaps best understood in terms of continuity, symmetry and harmony.1

Continuity. Though an unusual way to define infinity, even with quantum indeterminacy, continuity throughout the universe is the bedrock of science, logic, and rational thought. Numbers clarify this continuity. Carried out a billion places, the universe and its systems around us replicate day after day with utmost precision. Within this model, continuity is more fundamental than time; it begets time.

###### The complexity of a single molecule

Symmetry. The second face of the infinite is symmetry. Though so much of life is asymmetrical, the deepest examination of any physical thing begins to reveal deeper symmetries. Numbered relations define those symmetries and the universe appears to be tiled and tessellated deeply within every notation throughout the model. Here symmetry is more fundamental than space; it begets space.

Harmony. Speculating, it is hypostatized that two symmetries begin interacting within a notation and then across notations, and though possibly not quite perfect, the interaction of the symmetries perfects the moment for the observer or for the notations involved. Therefore, we have moments of perfection within our experiences of the universe.2

Our studies. At this point in our studies, there is not much more we can say about how the infinite defines the model and what the model says about the very nature of the infinite. These three insights, although reflective of the model, in part come out of a study of a moment of perfection in 1972,3 then from studies of the book, Finite and Infinite: A Philosophical Essay (Austin Farrer, Oxford, Dacre Press, Westminster, 1943), and from an application to a business model.4

These three qualities became the bedrock for our model of the universe and for discussions about the shared nature of the finite and infinite.

What difference does it make? First, it is a clear contrast to the nihilism of big bang cosmology. Building in strength and popularity over the past 30 years, that nihilism has had a lot to do the fraying of our little world. So much is out of control and spinning apart. Money is not the issue. What we believe and how we believe is. Hope is. Charity is. Integrity is.

What is 5000 to 13.8 billion years?  The finite and infinite relation has been the focus of humanity for as long as we have been recording our ever-so-short history. In light of 13.8+ billion years, five thousand years of records is, of course, quite short. We’ve just begun to make sense of it all.

Today in history. The finite is usually associated with physical, limited things. The infinite is often capitalized and associated with godly things, the eternal and everlasting. To our knowledge, Max Tegmark is the first theoretical physicist who has suggested that the concept of the infinite be abandoned. His rationale is that it gets in the way. He cannot make it work for the science he wants to create. Within these many articles, we hope to convince him, Hawking, Guth and so many others to re-engage our simple definition of the infinite. It does not require a religion or religious beliefs. Notwithstanding, it also doesn’t fly in the face of those who believe in the Infinite.

We can all begin to tolerate each other.

This is our simple introduction to a very large topic and we will return to this page often to expand its range and its depth.

1 A general introduction was the prior homepage.
2 This construct was introduced within these pages at the end of the year, December 2015.
3 This construct goes back to work in 1972 at both Synectics Education Systems in Cambridge, Massachusetts and the Harvard Philomorphs with Arthur Loeb and Buckminster Fuller.
4 The original construct was used as the foundation of a business model for a weekly television series, Small Business School, that Bruce Camber and Hattie Bryant started in 1994. It aired on PBS-TV stations throughout the USA and on the Voice of America around the world for over 50 seasons (2012).

###

# Heydari, Hoshang

`First email:  April 17, 2017`

Dear Prof. Dr. Hoshang Heydari:

I just wanted to thank you for your work that has been posted
within ArXiv, particularly Geometric formulation of quantum mechanics.
Certainly all 62 your entries are worthy of my time.

Though basic geometries are regaining favor and studies like yours
within quantum geometry have emerged, none have been seen
in context of the largest possible continuity equation created by
using base-2 from the Planck units to the current age of the universe.
This simple, seemingly innocuous progression maps our universe
within just over 202 notations. It also necessarily begins to define
the first 67 notations in ways that have not been considered
by the academic or scientific communities. In a very real sense,
it is pure math with ratios that define a truly hidden reality.

efforts in Stockholm.

Sincerely,
Bruce
**************
Bruce Camber
http://81018.com

# American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

One of the older scientific associations in the USA and a very important association within the world, logic seems to tell us that the editors and leaders within the organization would be constantly trying to guide the next generation. To date, our high school geometry class has been ignored. With genuine questions, nobody has taken time to respond in other than an automated or perfunctory manner.

Of course, the above paragraph will be edited once we hear from an editor of their online services or from their magazine, Science, or from any one of their thought leaders.

# Can A Quiet Expansion Challenge the Big Bang?

## Who? What? Why? When? Where? How?

Who: The history of the Big Bang Theory (bbt) is highly documented. It is an intellectual cornerstone within experimental and theoretical physics, cosmology, and astrophysics.
What: To challenge the bbt appears foolhardy at best. Yet, there are many, many reasons to challenge it, but most of all because (1) it is overly complex and confusing, (2) it is not very good philosophy, and (3) it is very poor psychology.
Why: The first three key parts of the bbt, involving substantially less than a trillionth of a second, are based on hunches and a need to shoehorn data to support the model.

Wikipedia says, “Planck scale is beyond current physical theories; it has no predictive value. The Planck epoch is assumed (or theorized) to have been dominated by quantum effects of gravity.” We say that the Planck scale is the starting point for the initial 24 notations (de facto defined by the bbt) and that these notations are shared by everything, everywhere in the universe. Painfully aware of the limitations of our vocabulary, these first notations are considered to be archetypal forms, structure and substance. Archetypal is used in the sense of the original pattern or model by which all things of the same type are representations, the prototype, or a perfect example. For more, see each of the four pages (24 columns) encapsulating notations 1-24 (opens in a new window or tab).

Both models have made key assumptions. We believe the QE model is internally more consistent, imaginative, and stimulating.

The key: More than just the bbt‘s four forces of nature within the Planck scale, we assume a certain unification of all five Planck base units and those constants that define them, and that this unification is carried through the entire 201+ notations to the current time and present day (until proven to be otherwise). The Planck base units are defined by length, time, mass, temperature and charge. These Planck units are further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or ħ or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or ε0 or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or kB or of temperature).

The Planck scale is not beyond logic, numbers, and conceptual integrity. Homogeneity, isotropy and simple logic rule. Yet, within the Quiet Expansion (QE) model, we have followed a simple logic and placed the Planck Temperature at the top of the scale, just beyond the 201st notation and then it goes down, approaching Absolute Zero. We are increasingly finding a simple relational logic between the Planck base units. Of course, this logic will be revisited with every future analysis of the QE model. Within the QE model, the Planck Charge, a Coulombs value, is taken as it is given. Within the bbt, the Planck Charge is ignored and the bbt value is postulated to be as large as possible. Their measurement is given in GeV units, one billion electron volts. Add 1016 zeroes to it and you have a charge unlike any other! It is the penultimate, grand assumption that truly requires a leap of faith!

To begin to understand all these numbers and their correlations, questions are asked, “Are these all non-repeating, never-ending numbers like Pi? Are all numbers that are non-repeating and never-ending somehow part of the infinite yet also the beginning of quantum mechanics?” The suggestion has been made that we carry out each number 10 decimal places, and if need be, 100 decimal places, and possibly even 1000 decimal places, to see if patterns can be discerned.

The QE model holds that things are simple before complex and everything is related to everything. Imputed, hypostatized and/or hypothesized are pointfree vertices and simple geometries as the deep infrastructure that gives rise to the work on combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (and the Feigenbaum’s constants), Langlands program, mereotopology ( point-free geometry), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory. Here are people working on theories and constructions of the simple, yet their concepts are anything but simple.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When: In the very beginning… Wikipedia says that the Planck epoch requires speculative proposals, a “New Physics” such as “…the Hartle–Hawking initial state, string landscape, string gas cosmology, and the ekpyrotic universe.” Each is a conceptually-rich, dense jungle of ideas. Cutting through that entanglement is only for the highly-motivated and academically astute. Most of us will just go on to the grand unification epoch, in search of a logical system that builds consistently upon itself. About the bbt model, Wikipedia simply says, “The three forces of the Standard Model are unified.” Of course, the QE goes much further, however, first consider a bbt problem. Electromagnetism, gravitation, weak nuclear interaction, and strong nuclear interaction are most often related to relations defined above the 65th notation.

Wikipedia says, “Cosmic inflation expands space by a factor of the order of 1026 over a time of the order of 10−33 to 10−32 seconds.[1] The universe is supercooled from about 1027 down to 1022 kelvins.[6] The Strong Nuclear Force becomes distinct from the Electroweak Force.” [1] (Our emphasis) First, consider that the Planck Temperature is 1.416 83×1032 Kelvin. The bbt totally skips the cooling from 1032 to 1027 Kelvin. It does not address what causes the cooling to 1022 Kelvin. Also, consider the amount of expansion and the short duration assumed in their statement above. To create that much space in that short of an interval would require light to travel so far beyond its normal speed, it would constitute the penultimate anomaly.

Also, because the bbt begins at the Planck Temperature, they truly need a supercooled concept. With the Quiet Expansion these temperatures are all superconducting being well below the superconducting transition temperatures. Perhaps the very concept of temperature will become better understood as a result of our struggles to define a different model of the universe.

About this inflationary epoch, Wikipedia says, “The forces of the Standard Model have separated, but energies are too high for quarks to coalesce into hadrons, instead forming a quark-gluon plasma. These are the highest energies directly observable in experiment in the Large Hadron Collider.”

Within the QE, if a quark-gluon plasma requires 1012 Kelvin, it is not possible until up around Notation 136 where the temperature is up to 1.92016×1012 Kelvin. Notation 136 is 4.6965×10-3 seconds from the singularity. One second is between Notations 143 and 144. Also, the Kelvin scale is counter-intuitive in many ways. The temperature of the Sun is about 5,778 K. Within the QE, that is expressed between Notations 107 and 108 (7.153178×103 K). The human temperature at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is 310.15 Kelvin which is between Notations 103 and 104 (4.47073×102 K). Also, at Notation 103 we find the Planck Length is now .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10-4 meters or about the size of a human egg.

The exacting nature of the correlations between the multiples of the Planck base units is just being explored for the first time. Within the QE everything everywhere is related through simple mathematics.

In Wikipedia, their category experts say, “The physics of the electroweak epoch is less speculative and much better understood than the physics of previous periods of the early universe. The existence of W and Z bosons has been demonstrated, and other predictions of electroweak theory have been experimentally verified.”

Finally the the bbt gives us something that isn’t incomplete or highly speculative. Yet, even with such assurance, the logic of the bbt is difficult to follow. Again, within the QE model the only duration that would allow for W and Z bosons is about 30 notations away, somewhere around notation 65. There is just not enough “conceptual” space and time for elementary particles and their effects.

By the way, within this simple, highly-integrated progression, there is the first measurement that has a visceral meaning for us. At Notation 32 the mass of the universe is 93.48 kilograms or about 206 pounds. By Notation 40 it is up to 2.39×104 kilograms. The universe is bulking up quickly and it is creating space and time as it goes.

Also, consider this unusual concept: within every notation, the QE model aggregates base-8 pointfree vertices using scaling laws and dimensional analysis (recommended by Prof. Dr. Freeman Dyson). There are single line entries for both the base-2 and base-8 progressions within the horizontally-scrolled chart.

— most active edit area—

## Planck epoch

Planck time:
<10−43 seconds
~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Planck Temperature:
1032 Kelvin
~
Planck Energy:
1019 GeV
First key bbt error

## Grand unification epoch

<10−36 seconds
~
1016 GeV
(gigaelectronvolts)

## Inflationary epochElectroweak epoch

<10−33 s to <10−32 seconds
(QE syncs to bbt time.)
1028 K to 1022 Kelvin
~
Expansion: 1026 meters
Editor: “science fiction”
Second key bbt error
~

## Quark epoch

Third error: >10−31 to
>10−12 seconds
1012 Kelvin
Notice there is a bbt/QE convergence

10−6 seconds to
10−1 seconds
1010 Kelvin to

109 Kelvin

## Lepton epoch

1 second to
10 seconds
109 K
Note: QE temp higher

10 seconds to
103 seconds to
1013 seconds
<380 ka
~
1011 Kelvin to
109 Kelvin to
103 Kelvin
10 MeV to
100 keV

~

## Matter-dominated era

47 ka (47,000 years) to
10 Ga (10×109) years
~
104 Kelvin to
4 Kelvin

## Recombination

380 ka (380,000 years)
~
4000 Kelvin

## Dark Ages

380 ka to
150 Ma (Mega-annus) or
150 million years
~
4000 Kelvin to
60 Kelvin

## Stelliferous Era

150 Ma
(150 million years)
100 Ga
(150 billion years)
60 Kelvin to
0.03 Kelvin

~150 Ma to
1 Ga
~
>60 K to
19 K

## Galaxy formation and evolution

1 Ga to 10 Ga
19 Kelvin to 4 Kelvin

>10 Ga
<4 K

13.8 Ga
2.7 Kelvin

## Notations 0-24

0 = Planck base units

Planck time:
5.39106×10−44 seconds
Notation 1: 1.0782−43 s
Notation 24: 1.809×10−36 (s)
Notation 0: 1.416×1032 Kelvin
Notation 1: 4.4×10-27 (K)
Notation 24: 3.69×10-20 (K)
Notation 0: 1.8×10-18 Coulombs
Notation 1: 3.7×10-18
(C)
Notation 24: 3.14×10-11 (C)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

## Notations 25 to 31

Notation 25: 1.8×10−36 seconds
Notation 31: 1.157×10−34 (s)
Notation 25: 6.29×10-11 (C)
Notation 31: 4.02×10-9 (C)

## Notations 32 to 40~

Notation 32: 2.31×10−34 seconds
Notation 40: 5.927×10−32 (s)
Notation 32: 1.89×10-19 Kelvin
Notation 40: 2.42×10-17 (K)
Notation 32: 6.94×10-26 meters
Notation 40: 1.77×10-23 (m)
Notation 32: 8.05×10-9 Coulombs
Notation 40: 2.06×10-6 (C)

## Notations 41 to 104

Notation 41: 1.18×10−31 seconds
Notation 104: 1.09×10−12 (s)
Notation 41: 4.84×10-17 Kelvin
Notation 104: 4.47×102 (K)
(310K = 98.33°F, 36.85° C)

## Notation 105 to 142

Notation 105: 2.18×10−12 (s)
Notation 142: 3.0×10−1 (s)
Notation 105: 8.94×102 Kelvin
Notation 142: 6.14×1013 (K)

## Notations 143 to 147

Notation 143: 6.01×10−1 (s)
Notation 147: 9.61 (s)
Notation 143: 2.45×1014 Kelvin
Notation 147: 3.93×1015 (K)

## Notations 147 to 154 toNotation 187

Notation 147: 9.6185 seconds
Notation 154: 1231.1 (s)
Notation 187: 1.05×1013 (s)
or 10,575,741,215,500 (s)
or 320± thousand years
Notation 147: 3.932×1015 Kelvin
Notation 154: 5.03×1017 (K)
Notation 187: 4.32×1027 (K)
Notation 147: 3.346×1026 (C)
Notation 154: 4.28×1028 (C)
Notation 187: 3.67×1038 (C)

## Notations 184to 201

Notation 184: 1,321,967,651,940 seconds or 41,919.31 years
Notation 201: 10 billion years
Notation 184: 5.4×1026 Kelvin
Notation 201: 7.0×1031 (K)

## Notations 187

10,575,741,215,500 (s)
320± thousand years
Notation 187: 3.6×1038 (C)

## Notations 187 to 196

Notations 187: 320,000+ years
Notation 196:
171.2± million years
5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds
Notations 187: 4.3×1027 Kelvin
Notations 196: 2.2×1030 (K)

## Notations 187 to 204+

Notation 196:
171.2± million years
Notation 204+:
Distant future
Notations 196: 2.2×1030 (K)
Notation 204: 1.416×1032 (K)

## Notations 187 to 189

Notation 187: 1.05×1013 seconds
or 320± thousand years to
Notation 189: 1.3± million years
Notation 187: 4.32×1027 Kelvin
Notation 189: 1.72×1028 (K)

## Notations 187 to Notation 201+

Notation 189: 1.3± million years
Notation 201: 10 billion years

## Notations 187 to Notation 201+

Notation 201: 10 billion years
Notation 201: 7.08×1031 Kelvin

## Notation 201+

Notation 201: 13.8 billion years
Notation 201: 7.08×1031 Kelvin
At the 41st notation there are 10,633,823,966,279,326,983,230,456,482,242,756,608 pointfree vertices. The base-2 simple doublings could be aggregating structure as groups or sets. Defined by the Planck base units, in the range 41-to-60, we hypothesize that these are the domains for archetypal relations and systems. There are 549,755,813,888 base-2 pointfree vertices at Notation 41 and 5,070,602,400,912,917,605,986,812,821,504 at Notation 104.

The bbt’s Quark Epoch generalizes 63 of the QE notations, from 41 to 104. These notations within the QE model are foundational so perhaps this comparison to Quark Epoch is a key. Consider the estimated requirement for temperature. The bbt epochs can not begin until the temperature is cool enough. Given that temperature requirement, within the QE model, the Quark Epoch would not begin until up-and-around Notation 136 where the temperature has finally risen to 1.9201×1012 Kelvin. If that is the right range, as suggested by proponents of the bbt, less than a second has transpired, the universe has a diameter of about 874 square miles and a mass of about 1.896×1032 kilograms.

Within the QE model from around Notations 65 to 69 is the transition from the small scale to the human scale. This “human scale” is the middle third of the 201 notations, i.e. 67-to-134. Even though two-thirds of the way through the 201 doublings, less than a second has transpired from the start.

In the Quark Epoch the bbt and QE begin to cross paths and overlap. Wikipedia says, “Quarks are bound into hadrons. Over the hadron epoch, the process of baryogenesis results in an elimination of anti-hadrons (baryon asymmetry).” As noted within Wikipedia, some of these perceptions come directly out of the laboratory, such as CERN in Geneva, where this phenomenon has been observed. So, other than the improbable placement within the time/temperature curve, all processes herein after become readily integrated within the QE model. The bbt and QE have overlapped and begun to become simpatico.

A key question within the QE model is, “What is a notation?” Also known as a cluster, doubling, group, layer, set, and/or step, each word is perspectival and each notation is dynamic, always in the process of being defined, right up to the current time within the 201st notation. Each notation has an active role in defining who we are and what this universe is; and, each notation has an active role in defining all other notations. Today, right now, all of these notations activelyf define humanity or the human scale (67-to-134), must therefore be something like the archetypes of forms and functions (notations 1-to-67) that define our deeper beingness. The notations from 134-to-200 define our planetary and galactic systems and this is where most of the work of those physicists, cosmologist, and astrophysicists have worked.

In just a few more notations, between 142 and 143, the universe is at the one second mark. This measurement is most often used to determine the speed of light. Yet, as noted in earlier postings, within every notation, the Planck length divided by the multiple of the Planck Time renders an approximation of the speed of light. It is just commonsense when we see that the speed of light plays prominently in the definitions of Planck Length and Planck Time.

The question to be answered, “What is the meaning of temperature? …within the bbt? Within the QE model, we impute that it is the total temperature throughout the area defined by the notation (or cluster, container, domain, doubling, group, layer, or step). This measurement within the Hadron Epoch within the bbt is now lower than it is within the QE. There is a natural correlation between all these numbers within the QE simply because they start with the same definitional characteristics (the Planck base units) and the evolution of those numbers using base-2 exponential notation. The ratio of length to temperature renders .73322+ ratio. That result is currently being analyzed, space-to-temperature or kelvin per meters.

In 1972 George Ellis and Stephen Hawking began to explore the boundary conditions that define our universe between 10-13 centimeters (elementary particles) and 1028 cm, the assumed radius of the universe. They did not approach the Planck base units which would have expanded their range to 1.616199×10−35 meters (Planck Length) and then it would have tucked them in at about 5.1942×1025 meters according to current best guesses regarding the Age of the Universe.

With very few exceptions, it was not until Frank Wilczek (MIT) wrote a series of articles,
in 2001, Scaling Mt. Planck, (Physics Today), did anybody think these Planck numbers amounted to anything more than numerology. It would take another ten more years before we would come along, naively doing our thing with base-2 exponential notation, so we are confident that all the proponents of the big bang have not engaged our quiet expansion model.

Earlier it was observed that the big bang is not good philosophy and it is bad psychology. Philosophy is taken as a study of first principles and systems, the universals and constants that create the boundary conditions as well as the continuity equations that bind our universe together. Since 1972, especially with the very key question about the very nature of the first microseconds, the bbt has not progressed very far. Their Planck epoch is still mysterious. It is bad psychology for that very reason. It is so disjointed, so out of touch with anything human, it de facto promotes a certain form of nihilism.

Theories should have elegance, beauty, coherence, and simplicity. Children should be able
to begin to understand. And with the QE, children quickly begin to understand 2 times 2.
We just have to carry it out a few more places for them.

***

Disclaimer: Our charts and discussion are our first time to make a comparative analysis
between the big bang theory (herein abbreviated bbt) and our Quiet Expansion (QE).
Silly errors are inevitable. We are neophytes, not scholars, within these fields,
so please point out any of our failures with logic, math, and physics. We will be most grateful.

# Burst the big bang bubble

## It lacks continuity, symmetry and harmony.

In the Big Board-little universe model using base-2 notation from the Planck Time to the Age of the universe, the entire physical universe is contained within just over 200 notations that are highly-integrated and totally-predictive. Notations are also known as clusters, doublings, groups, sets or steps. Within the first second of the universe, there is more than enough “natural inflation” from the Planck Charge to get “things” going. As a result of studying and working with this model since December 2011, there are many-many facets to explore, however one of the most important is that this model logically suggests that time is derivative and that the finite and the infinite are perhaps best understood in terms of continuity, symmetry and harmony.1

Continuity. Though an unusual way to define infinity, even with quantum indeterminacy, continuity throughout the universe is the bedrock of science, logic, and rational thought. Numbers clarify this continuity. Carried out a billion places, the universe and its systems around us replicate day after day with utmost precision. Within this model, continuity is more fundamental than time; it begets time.

Symmetry. The second face of the infinite is symmetry. Though so much of life is asymmetrical, the deepest examination of any physical thing begins to reveal deeper symmetries. Numbered relations define those symmetries and the universe appears to be tiled and tessellated deeply within every notation throughout the model. Here symmetry is more fundamental than space; it begets space.

Harmony. Speculating, it is hypostatized that two symmetries begin interacting within a notation and then across notations, and though possibly not quite perfect, the interaction of the symmetries perfects the moment for the observer or for the notations involved. Therefore, we have moments of perfection within our experiences of the universe.2

Our studies. At this point in our studies, there is not much more we can say about how the infinite defines the model and what the model says about the very nature of the infinite. These three insights, although reflective of the model, in part come out of a study of a moment of perfection in 1972,3 then from studies of the book, Finite and Infinite: A Philosophical Essay (Austin Farrer, Oxford, Dacre Press, Westminster, 1943), and from an application to a business model.4

These three qualities became the bedrock for our model of the universe and for discussions about the shared nature of the finite and infinite.

What difference does it make? First, it is a clear contrast to the nihilism of big bang cosmology. Building in strength and popularity over the past 30 years, that nihilism has had a lot to do the fraying of our little world. So much is out of control and spinning apart. Money is not the issue. What we believe and how we believe is. Hope is. Charity is. Integrity is.

The finite and infinite relation has been the focus of humanity for as long as we have been recording our ever-so-short history. In light of 13.8+ billion years, five thousand years of records is, of course, quite short. We’ve just begun to make sense of it all.

Today in history. The finite is usually associated with physical, limited things. The infinite is often capitalized and associated with godly things, the eternal and everlasting. To our knowledge, Max Tegmark is the first theoretical physicist who has suggested that the concept of the infinite be abandoned. His rationale is that it gets in the way. He cannot make it work for the science he wants to create. Within these many articles, we hope to convince him, Hawking, Guth and so many others to re-engage our simple definition of the infinite. It does not require a religion or religious beliefs. Notwithstanding, it also doesn’t fly in the face of those who believe in the Infinite.

We can all begin to tolerate each other.

This is our simple introduction to a very large topic and we will return to this page often to expand its range and its depth.

1 A general introduction was the prior homepage.
2 This construct was introduced within these pages at the end of the year, December 2015.
3 This construct goes back to work in 1972 at both Synectics Education Systems in Cambridge, Massachusetts and the Harvard Philomorphs with Arthur Loeb and Buckminster Fuller.
4 The original construct was used as the foundation of a business model for a weekly television series, Small Business School, that Bruce Camber and Hattie Bryant started in 1994. It aired on PBS-TV stations throughout the USA and on the Voice of America around the world for over 50 seasons (2012).

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Prior homepages:

Key references: Communications

# How do all the religions fit into this simple model?

`The question is addressed through this letter to three leaders.`

Most recent update: Monday, September 5, 2016 (Labor Day in the USA)

Gentlemen:

In none of your speeches has the literal interpretation of the Bible, the Qur’an, and the Tanakh (BQT – alphabetically-listed), and all the other associated religious documents with each, been brought into question and rigorously challenged in light of the universals and constants of science. (And, yes, these three groups of writings, taken as a whole, are abbreviated, BQT.)

Fundamentalism and literalism make the same mistake no matter what the belief system. Their frameworks for interpretation are too limited.

Terrorists and warriors take the historic writings within their holy books and use-and-abuse them to justify the most ungodly behavior. The universal writings of the these books reflect God (within the Abrahamic traditions, Allah, Jehovah, and Yahweh). For those of us from non-Arab-speaking countries, Allah is the Arabic word for God. To discern which writing is historic (finite) and which is universal (infinite) is the work for scholars. It is hard work, called exegesis, and the discipline is called hermeneutics.

There are many ways to know God (abbreviate Allah, Jehovah, Yahweh, AJY), also known as the Infinite, the Perfect, the One, the Creator, the Sustainer, the Imminent, the Transcendent, the Omnipotent, the Omnipresent, Omnibenevolent…

All of the historic documents, especially all those lines-and-paragraphs within the BQT that reflect the tensions of their unique times within which the words were written, need to be set aside as the history of a particular time. The universal writings, all the lines-and-paragraphs within the BQT that are timeless, not in any way time-stamped, must be developed as a basis for a working faith.*

To discern between the historic and the universal is the key to our global future.

There are many groups and movements within Abrahamic faiths that have not done exegetical and hermeneutical work. Within Christianity there is the KKK, the Christian Identity Movement, the Arayan Nations, and many more. Within Islam that includes movements like Salafism, the Muslim Brotherhood, al-Qaida, Hezbollah, Taliban, ISIL, Boko Haram, Al-Shabaab and any others who believe, “Allah is our objective… death for the sake of Allah is our wish.” Within Judaism there is the Jewish Underground which includes informal groups like Price Tag, and more formal groups like Kach, Kahane Chai, and the Bat Ayin Underground.

To know about God (AJY), one must read sacred texts. To know the face of God, one must study those elements within the sciences and mathematics that are universal and constant; here AJY reveals the very nature of the One who creates and sustains.

•    The second form is symmetry and in its perfection functions to create relations. In the Abrahamic tradition the perfection of that symmetry is the love doctrine, i.e., to love God with all one’s heart, soul, mind and strength, and one’s neighbor as oneself.  Any symmetry that creates real relations is a metaphor and a direct expression of the presence of the Love of God. Anything that breaks relations is from man.

•    The third form is dynamics and its perfection, a complex symmetry extended within time, is harmony.  Again, in the Abrahamic tradition, the gift of God’s Spirit transcending a moment in space and time creates a profound joy, deep insight, compelling love… simply a moment of perfection.  Any dynamic experienced as a harmony is a metaphor, albeit the real presence, of God’s Spirit within that moment.

Every scientific and religious assertion, both seeking to understand and define the universal, begins with the same first principle and evolves within its own understanding to the second and third.  Therefore we have a diversity of faith statements which includes all of the sciences.

This is also the basis of the value chain. The more perfect a moment or an experience is, OR the more perfected a thing or system is, the more valuable it becomes.  Thus, we have the beginnings of business. Here is the baseline beginning of value and values.

Any assertion that counters life’s evolving perfections is not religion (at best, it’s a cult*); it is also not business (it’s exploitation or a bad company); certainly it is not good government; and most often, it is not even good science.

My bottom line conclusion is simple, “Let us open another front within this epic battle with any and all people who cause the death of another.”

For more, please consider these pages:

Thank you.

Most sincerely,

Bruce Camber

*Back in 2006, I proposed a book to the Oxford University Press people,
The Synoptic Scriptures of the Christians, Jews and Muslims.
They found it interesting, but not compelling enough. It still should be done!

Editor’s note: This letter was originally written on the 3rd of March 2015 to Barack Hussein Obama, President, USA, and Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister, Israel. It was then updated on Monday, December 28, 2015 to include Ali Khamanei, Ayatollah Seyyed, Iran.  It was sent via the links embedded within their names above on February 10, 2016.

There is much more to come.

# Homepage from January 2016 through August 2016

## Seeking Answers To A Key Question About The Deep Structure Of The Universe

### Can our entire universe be meaningfully encapsulated within just over 200 base-2 exponential notations?

###### Most recent update: August 23, 2016

Introduction
In December 2011 two teachers and about 80 high school students rather naïvely began to explore a geometric progression that went down in size to the Planck Length then reversed to go back up all the way to the Observable Universe (most links open a tab or window and go to an in-depth Wikipedia page).

Their chart is pictured on the left. It measures 60×11 inches. It is a view of the entire universe and has just over 200 base-2 exponential notations (dividing or multiplying by 2, over and over again). Thinking that this simple math was already part of academic work, their two-year search could not find any references to base-2 and the Planck Length.* In the first year, asking around locally and then globally, many people were quite puzzled and asked, “Why haven’t we seen a base-2 scale of the universe before now?”

An Integrated Universe View

Dubbed Big Board – little universe, this project started as a curiosity; today, it is an on-going study to analyze and develop the logic and potential links from their simple mathematics to all the current mathematics that define the universe, all its parts, everything from everywhere, and from the beginning of time to this very moment in time. The hope is that there is a simple logic and there are simple links. Their standing invitation is, Open To Everyone, to come and help. This chart follows the progressions from the smallest to the largest possible measurement of a length. Other charts engage the other Planck base units. With more questions than answers, this group is trying to grasp the logic flows in light of current academic-scientific research. They’re making a little progress.

Yes, on December 19, 2011 the geometry classes in a  New Orleans high school were introduced to the chart on the left. The purpose of all their charts is to follow the Planck base units to each maximum value (Planck Length to the Observable Universe and Planck Time to the Age of the Universe). In April 2016 work began on a large horizontally-scrolled chart of all that data which encourages key questions about the big bang theory, especially the first four epochs, the Planck Epoch, the Grand Unification Epoch, the Inflationary Epoch, and the Electroweak Epoch. Is it the best possible model?

What’s next?

They ask, “Where are the informed critics to tell us where we are going wrong?” One rather brilliant, young physicist told them that the concept for this project is idiosyncratic. They quickly learned how right he was. Nobel laureates and scholars of the highest caliber were asked, “What is wrong with our picture? Where is our  fallacy of misplaced concreteness?”  Slowly analyzing the logic and developing their thoughts as web postings, the group plods along. At some point somebody should say, “That’s wrong” and be able to tell them in what ways they have failed logically or mathematically.

If they are not wrong, the extension of basic logic could begin to yield unusual results. For example, the Big Bang theory could get a special addendum, the first 67 notations. That would make it simple, symmetric (entirely-related), predictive, and totally other. The entire universe could get an infrastructure of geometries whereby many issues in physics, chemistry and biology could be redressed. The finite-infinite relation is opened for new inquiries. This model of the universe is derivative of quantitative qualities of infinity, continuity and symmetry. Those relations appear to have an inherent qualitative or value structure. If so, ethics and the studies of the Mind (the discernment of qualities) just might, for the first time in history, become part of a scientific-mathematical continuum. A trifurcated definition of the individual may emerge whereby people are simultaneously within the small scale, human scale, and large scale universe. Of course, we’ll have to embrace a different sense of the nature of space and time. Perhaps we might begin to understand what it means that space and time are derivative.  Surely, that is enough; yet there will always be more. Along the way, there are  the many working postings that have been written since those first classes and each needs constant updating. Many can be found through the top navigation bar option,  INDEX.

Notes, lesson plans and posts (and all new posts) are being consolidated and linked from this homepage. Now called, The Big Board – little universe Project,  it is a Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics (STEM) application. Secondary schools from around the world will be invited to join this exploration.

The earliest postings and blogs were done by Bruce Camber within a section of his website — SmallBusinessSchool.org. That site supports a television series, Small Business School, that he and his wife, Hattie Bryant, started. It aired for 50 seasons on most PBS-TV stations throughout the USA and on thousands around the world via the Voice of America-TV affiliates.

Over the years articles and blogs have been posted on WordPress, LinkedIn, Blogger, and Facebook (often links open in new windows). An April 2012 article, formatted for and displayed within Wikipedia for a few weeks, was deleted on May 2, 2012 as “original research” by highly-specialized Wikipedia editors. Only then did this little group of teachers and students finally begin to believe that base-2 notation had not already been applied to the Planck base units. And, as they have grown in their analyses, it has become increasingly clear that this area of simple math and simple logic is a new area for exploration and that notations 1-to-67 may be a key to unlock a new understanding of the nature of physical reality.

The current biggest challenge is to study the logic flows within their many charts based on the Planck base units, both up and down and across, and to build on current questions, “Is this logic simple and consistent? What does it imply about the nature of the universe?”

So, even now, there is much more to come. At the end of the year, 2015,  a Lettermanesque Top Ten was added. In January 2016 an article, Constructing the Universe from Scratch, emerged.  In April 2016 a horizontally-scrolled chart provided a better sense of the flow. Still a “rough draft” this project has a long way to go! Bruce Camber says, “Help! Please let us know where we are going wrong! Thanks.”

*****

* Footnote: In 1957 Kees Boeke did a very limited base-10 progression of just 40 steps. It became quite popular. In July 2014, physicists, Gerard ‘t Hooft and Stefan Vandoren wrote a scholarly update using base-10. Notwithstanding, base-2 is 3.3333+ times more granular than base-10 plus it mimics cellular reproduction and other naturally bifurcating processes in physics, chemistry, biology, topology, botany, architecture; it has a geometry; it has the Planck base units, and it has a simple logic and so much more.

Articles will be integrated, edited and organized by topic, title, and timeline:

There are many more legacy articles still over on the Small Business School website.

at camber  – (at) – bblu.org or click here for more contact information.  Thank you.

# Originally posted. Most Recent Update.

There may well be two dates at the top of a posting within this site. If there is a date above the light grey line, that is the earliest date on the web.

Yet, all postings within these two websites — http://bblu.org and http://81018.com — are in process.

Some are not yet first drafts. These are documents being worked on in the public view and your feedback is encouraged.  If you would like to be an editor of the site, please volunteer.  These documents may be be stamped with  a “Most Recent Update by…”

Some are first drafts.  There is always room for improvement and it is anticipated that more work will be done on the document.  These documents will also be be stamped with  a “Most Recent Update by…” when there is a change.

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# Sean Carroll

Hi Sean,

What a marvelous thing you do with your life!
https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/self.html

First, congratulations on being married to Jennifer.
She is such a mensch. I quoted her several years ago
within an article about the size of the universe based
on Hubble measurements (See Footnote 3).

We are just silly high school teachers. Neophytes.
We backed into a strange universe view based on
work in our geometry classes using the tetrahedron
and octahedron.  We divided the edges in half, connected
the vertices to find all the nested tetras and octas
and kept going within 40 times, right by the old fermion

and another 67 times down into the Planck scales.

That was a trip.  When we decided to multiply by 2, we
were out to the edge of the universe in about 90 doublings.
Couldn’t believe it.  It was Boeke on steroids.  He just had
zeros. We had the Planck base units, the Age of the Universe,

So what?

Well, we thought it was a good STEM tool, then those

67 notations between the fermion and the Planck scale just

started to tickle us.  What is there?  Nothing?

I don’t think so.  Here’s out latest chart (horizontal scrolling):
https://bbludata.wordpress.com/1-204/
We have lots of charts: https://bblu.org/charts/
And now, after five plus years we are getting bold
and probably very stupid:
https://bbludata.wordpress.com/2016/05/25/timeline/
Have we dropped off the cliff? Can you help us get back
on terra firma? What’s wrong with our idiosyncratic logic?

Just idiotic?

Thanks.

Most sincerely,
Bruce

# Non-repeating, Never-ending Uniqueness

From order to chaos to order again, all built into this universe

Thomas Jefferson and the framers of the US Declaration of Independence captured a deep-seated truth about the very nature of the universe. They had intellectually and emotionally understood the importance of human freedom so they made a guarantee that all people should be free from bondage and enslavement. In that statement that had also intuited that such freedom is built-into the very design of the universe. The free will of the person runs deep.

Let’s see what we can learn about the design of the universe.

The most basic, simple object is the sphere. Deep within the sphere are the original non-repeating never-ending numbers. One might say, “Here are the first openings, the initial pathways, between the finite and infinite.”

Here the perfect continuity of the infinite gives way to the openness, an inexplicable random-order, apparently never-ending, number generator of the most simple three-dimensional object in the universe. It is complex, but predictable. Built right into the most basic shape is
an open number, pi (π).  It seems to scream at us,
“Pay attention to the ratios. This number is irrational!
The ratio is the dynamic reality that captures the essence.”

When the spheres are stacked and, as you can see demonstrated on the right, that stacking creates the forms for straight lines (lattices), triangles, tetrahedrons and octahedrons that perfectly enclose space. With just the tetrahedron and octahedron, you can tile the universe.

We started with the determinacy of the sphere, going within  to the indeterminacy within its inherent nature, and then going out, stacking multiple spheres, the result is a new  order of relations, spheres to the perfections within the tetrahedral-octahedral couplet.

Indeterminacy (non-repeating, apparently never-ending) is also built into other layers of the fabric of the universe.  There are constants and universals that define some of the most basic relations between things. Known as the fundamental physical constants such as the speed of light c, vacuum permittivity ε0, Planck constant h,  the gravitational constant G, the fine structure constant, αs, the coupling constant for the strong force and so many more are all pathways between the finite and infinite, from the perfect to the imperfect, from the unchangeable to the changing.

Yes, chaos is built into the universe in other very basic ways, yet it is time to stop and see what is going in in the world of science and research.  The big bang theory has been part of the culture since the 1920s.  It has been the dominant theory since 1975.  It allows an island of fundamental constants known as the Planck base units to rather meaninglessly drift in the ether.  Big Bang scholarship starts well beyond the Planck base units; and, until December 2011, there had been no path created between those numbers and our physical realities defined by the Standard Model.

The first path was just along the Planck Length. It was a precarious climb and very few chose to follow.  It wasn’t until a path up from the Planck Time was cut alongside the Planck Length did it seem like more than a fool’s dream.  When cuts were made for mass, charge, and temperature, it seemed a bit more ordered, but still quite idiosyncratic.

Today, there are plans to build super highways up from the Planck base units. Others are getting the vision that it just might be possible, a little like building a super highway over the Darién Gap, an impenetrable, deep rain forest between Panama and Columbia or the 51 miles across the Bering Strait (about 82 kilometres wide at its narrowest point) between Russia and the USA.

As unlikely and difficult as these things seem, it takes a vision to open the way.

In process…. More is on the way.  July 23, 2016

Thanks to Dee Hock and his friend, Alistair Fraser of New Zealand.