Hoshang Heydari

April 17, 2017

REF: https://arxiv.org/abs/1503.00238

Dear Prof. Dr. Hoshang Heydari:

I just wanted to thank you for your work that has been posted
within ArXiv, particularly Geometric formulation of quantum mechanics.
Certainly all 62 your entries are worthy of my time.

Though basic geometries are regaining favor and studies like yours
within quantum geometry have emerged, none have been seen
in context of the largest possible continuity equation created by
using base-2 from the Planck units to the current age of the universe.
This simple, seemingly innocuous progression maps our universe

within just over 202 notations. It also necessarily begins to define
the first 67 notations in ways that have not been considered
by the academic or scientific communities. In a very real sense,
it is pure math with ratios that define a truly hidden reality.

Again, I thank you for your lifetime of work and your continued
efforts in Stockholm.

Bruce Camber
New Orleans

Can A Quiet Expansion Challenge the Big Bang?

Legacy: The first rough draft as of Sunday, June 12, 2016

Current work (still in process)

by Bruce Camber, New Orleans

History of the Universe Not too many people question the big bang theory (herein abbreviated bbt). We do. Back in September 2014 for the first time we publicly raised questions about the bbt.

The world-renown Cambridge University physicist, Stephen Hawking, is the leading spokesperson for the bbt. He has become a rock star among scientists because he has been so successful as its primary advocate.

Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking in the PBS-TV series, Genius, first aired in May 2016

Within his May 2016 PBS-TV series, Genius, he asks rhetorically, “Where did the universe come from? The answer, as most people can tell you, is the big bang. Everything in existence, expanding exponentially in every direction,from an infinitely small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense point, creating a cosmos filled with energy and matter. But what does that really mean and where did it all begin?” His confidence also exudes from his 1988, best-selling book, A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes, and even from his foundational writing in 1973 (co-authored with Cambridge colleague, George F. R. Ellis) the highly-technical book, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time.

Only a fool would dare challenge all this work over so many years.

So, such is life; each of us must sometime play the fool. With these facts and the basic premise established, this posting is a “rough draft.” It should become a first draft by July 4. Given the depth and breadth of the foundations upon which the big bang theory (bbt) currently rests, your comments while this posting is being refined, are most welcomed. If this embedded link does not open your email browser, my address is camber (at) bblu (dot) org or go to the Contact page. There are many key images for the big bang theory such as this image above right. More images will be added over time. Most links related to the bbt go to Wikipedia pages. Images for our model, called a Quiet Expansion (QE), will be added soon.

The key to our model is multiplication by 2, starting with the Planck base units. Those pivotal Planck calculations were done in 1899 by Max Planck. Our simple work of multiplying them by 2, and then each result by 2, over and over and over again began in December 2011. We discovered that you readily emerge at the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe, all in just 201 steps.

That is crazy, but true. It is called “base-2 exponential notation.” It’s what cells do. It’s a bit like chemical bonding. Bifurcation theory describes another element of its dynamic. In just 201 doublings, layers or groups, you can capture the entire universe in an entirely-ordered fashion! Beyond belief? Our web presence, Big Board-little universe, can provide more background about our rather brief history.

We’ve used the Wikipedia summaries of the big bang. Wikipedia appears to represent the current thinking of most within the relevant scientific communities. These scientists have lived within this theory throughout their professional careers. It is part of their intellectual being. We believe most all of their work can be absorbed within the QE. It is just from the starting point to the inflationary epoch — less than a fraction of a fraction of a second — are pointedly questioned. With a little-but-substantial tweak, we believe all the work on the subsequent epochs can be readily integrated.

The writers within the Wikipedia community overlap with those within these scientific communities. Wikipedia, constantly in the process of refining their writing, provides several summaries of the History of the Universe based on the most current work of leading thinkers within the scientific community. The work that is based on observations has a place within the QE. Our guess is that those observations will become richer and more informative when the QE parameters and boundary conditions are engaged.

Are space-and-time unbounded or bounded? If bounded, is our universe a container universe? Are the Planck base units and all the dimensionless constants part of the definitions of the boundaries between the finite and the infinite?

Within the current bbt analysis gravitational waves arise from within their inflationary period. The bbt thought leaders ascribe a much faster-than-light expansion just after the big bang. And, that begs the question: What are the preconditions of superluminal events and motion? There haven’t been any answers since 1902 when Jacobus Kapteyn made his initial observations, since the 1983 “superluminal workshop” at Jodrell Bank Observatory, and since the subsequent studies of microquasars, their accretion disks and such phenomenon as magnetorotational instability. It is all a very special language, logic and reality; the observational results are well-defined; yet, we believe the most-penetrating conclusions are pending.

In 1970 there were competing theories about the beginning of the universe. By 1990 the bbt had become dominant. In 2011 our little group of high school geometry people began to explore the interior structures of the tetrahedron and octahedron and that is when we found within our tilings and tessellations, just over 201 base-2 exponential notations from the Planck base units to the Age of the Universe and to the Observable Universe. That continuum appeared so simple, we first engaged it as an excellent STEM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics) tool. Yet, with further study and thought, it also seemed to challenge some of our basic commonsense assumptions about nature (the back story). As we studied our new little model, the bbt continued to solidify its dominance within the general culture and we started to question it. We began to believe that the actual physics of the first moments of creation might be better defined by the simple mathematics of a quiet expansion, especially the first 67 notations. Those 67 have never been recognized as such and certainly have not been discussed within academia. The great minds throughout the ages have been unaware of the 201+ base-2 notations and those first 67 notations. So mysterious were the 67, we began more actively to think about them and to make some postulations about their place and purpose.

Our first posting about this Quiet Expansion is a result of our naive, informal, and often idiosyncratic studies of the Planck Base Units, base-2 exponential notation, and an inherent geometry assumed (hypothesized, hypostatized, and/or imputed) to be within every scale (doubling, layer, notation, step, etc) throughout the universe. We have moved slowly. Having backed into the Planck base units from our simple exercises in a high school geometry class, we were not at all sure of ourselves. So, after observing our results for a couple of years, we began asking the question, “Could this be a more-simple, more-inclusive model of the universe than the big bang theory?” Because we only have the beginnings of an outline of a model, we continued our quest and continued to ask more questions:

Who? What? Why? When? Where? How?

Who: The history of the Big Bang Theory (bbt) is highly documented. It is an intellectual cornerstone within experimental and theoretical physics, cosmology, and astrophysics.
What: To challenge the bbt appears foolhardy at best. Yet, there are many, many reasons to challenge it, but most of all because (1) it is overly complex and confusing, (2) it is not very good philosophy, and (3) it is very poor psychology.
Why: The first three key parts of the bbt, involving substantially less than a trillionth of a second, are based on hunches and a need to shoehorn data to support the model.

Wikipedia says, “Planck scale is beyond current physical theories; it has no predictive value. The Planck epoch is assumed (or theorized) to have been dominated by quantum effects of gravity.” We say that the Planck scale is the starting point for the initial 24 notations (de facto defined by the bbt) and that these notations are shared by everything, everywhere in the universe. Painfully aware of the limitations of our vocabulary, these first notations are considered to be archetypal forms, structure and substance. Archetypal is used in the sense of the original pattern or model by which all things of the same type are representations, the prototype, or a perfect example. For more, see each of the four pages (24 columns) encapsulating notations 1-24 (opens in a new window or tab).

Both models have made key assumptions. We believe the QE model is internally more consistent, imaginative, and stimulating.

The key: More than just the bbt‘s four forces of nature within the Planck scale, we assume a certain unification of all five Planck base units and those constants that define them, and that this unification is carried through the entire 201+ notations to the current time and present day (until proven to be otherwise). The Planck base units are defined by length, time, mass, temperature and charge. These Planck units are further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or ħ or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or ε0 or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or kB or of temperature).

The Planck scale is not beyond logic, numbers, and conceptual integrity. Homogeneity, isotropy and simple logic rule. Yet, within the Quiet Expansion (QE) model, we have followed a simple logic and placed the Planck Temperature at the top of the scale, just beyond the 201st notation and then it goes down, approaching Absolute Zero. We are increasingly finding a simple relational logic between the Planck base units. Of course, this logic will be revisited with every future analysis of the QE model. Within the QE model, the Planck Charge, a Coulombs value, is taken as it is given. Within the bbt, the Planck Charge is ignored and the bbt value is postulated to be as large as possible. Their measurement is given in GeV units, one billion electron volts. Add 1016 zeroes to it and you have a charge unlike any other! It is the penultimate, grand assumption that truly requires a leap of faith!

To begin to understand all these numbers and their correlations, questions are asked, “Are these all non-repeating, never-ending numbers like Pi? Are all numbers that are non-repeating and never-ending somehow part of the infinite yet also the beginning of quantum mechanics?” The suggestion has been made that we carry out each number 10 decimal places, and if need be, 100 decimal places, and possibly even 1000 decimal places, to see if patterns can be discerned.

The QE model holds that things are simple before complex and everything is related to everything. Imputed, hypostatized and/or hypothesized are pointfree vertices and simple geometries as the deep infrastructure that gives rise to the work on combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (and the Feigenbaum’s constants), Langlands program, mereotopology ( point-free geometry), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory. Here are people working on theories and constructions of the simple, yet their concepts are anything but simple.
When: In the very beginning… Wikipedia says that the Planck epoch requires speculative proposals, a “New Physics” such as “…the Hartle–Hawking initial state, string landscape, string gas cosmology, and the ekpyrotic universe.” Each is a conceptually-rich, dense jungle of ideas. Cutting through that entanglement is only for the highly-motivated and academically astute. Most of us will just go on to the grand unification epoch, in search of a logical system that builds consistently upon itself. About the bbt model, Wikipedia simply says, “The three forces of the Standard Model are unified.” Of course, the QE goes much further, however, first consider a bbt problem. Electromagnetism, gravitation, weak nuclear interaction, and strong nuclear interaction are most often related to relations defined above the 65th notation.

Wikipedia says, “Cosmic inflation expands space by a factor of the order of 1026 over a time of the order of 10−33 to 10−32 seconds.[1] The universe is supercooled from about 1027 down to 1022 kelvins.[6] The Strong Nuclear Force becomes distinct from the Electroweak Force.” [1] (Our emphasis) First, consider that the Planck Temperature is 1.416 83×1032 Kelvin. The bbt totally skips the cooling from 1032 to 1027 Kelvin. It does not address what causes the cooling to 1022 Kelvin. Also, consider the amount of expansion and the short duration assumed in their statement above. To create that much space in that short of an interval would require light to travel so far beyond its normal speed, it would constitute the penultimate anomaly.

Also, because the bbt begins at the Planck Temperature, they truly need a supercooled concept. With the Quiet Expansion these temperatures are all superconducting being well below the superconducting transition temperatures. Perhaps the very concept of temperature will become better understood as a result of our struggles to define a different model of the universe.

About this inflationary epoch, Wikipedia says, “The forces of the Standard Model have separated, but energies are too high for quarks to coalesce into hadrons, instead forming a quark-gluon plasma. These are the highest energies directly observable in experiment in the Large Hadron Collider.”

Within the QE, if a quark-gluon plasma requires 1012 Kelvin, it is not possible until up around Notation 136 where the temperature is up to 1.92016×1012 Kelvin. Notation 136 is 4.6965×10-3 seconds from the singularity. One second is between Notations 143 and 144. Also, the Kelvin scale is counter-intuitive in many ways. The temperature of the Sun is about 5,778 K. Within the QE, that is expressed between Notations 107 and 108 (7.153178×103 K). The human temperature at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is 310.15 Kelvin which is between Notations 103 and 104 (4.47073×102 K). Also, at Notation 103 we find the Planck Length is now .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10-4 meters or about the size of a human egg.

The exacting nature of the correlations between the multiples of the Planck base units is just being explored for the first time. Within the QE everything everywhere is related through simple mathematics.

In Wikipedia, their category experts say, “The physics of the electroweak epoch is less speculative and much better understood than the physics of previous periods of the early universe. The existence of W and Z bosons has been demonstrated, and other predictions of electroweak theory have been experimentally verified.”

Finally the the bbt gives us something that isn’t incomplete or highly speculative. Yet, even with such assurance, the logic of the bbt is difficult to follow. Again, within the QE model the only duration that would allow for W and Z bosons is about 30 notations away, somewhere around notation 65. There is just not enough “conceptual” space and time for elementary particles and their effects.

By the way, within this simple, highly-integrated progression, there is the first measurement that has a visceral meaning for us. At Notation 32 the mass of the universe is 93.48 kilograms or about 206 pounds. By Notation 40 it is up to 2.39×104 kilograms. The universe is bulking up quickly and it is creating space and time as it goes.

Also, consider this unusual concept: within every notation, the QE model aggregates base-8 pointfree vertices using scaling laws and dimensional analysis (recommended by Prof. Dr. Freeman Dyson). There are single line entries for both the base-2 and base-8 progressions within the horizontally-scrolled chart.

— most active edit area—

Big Bang Theory (bbt)

Planck epoch

Planck time:
<10−43 seconds
Planck Temperature:
1032 Kelvin
Planck Energy:
1019 GeV
First key bbt error


<10−36 seconds
1016 GeV

Inflationary epoch
Electroweak epoch

<10−33 s to <10−32 seconds
(QE syncs to bbt time.)
1028 K to 1022 Kelvin
Expansion: 1026 meters
Editor: “science fiction”
Second key bbt error

Quark epoch

Third error: >10−31 to
>10−12 seconds
1012 Kelvin
Notice there is a bbt/QE convergence

Hadron epoch

10−6 seconds to
10−1 seconds
1010 Kelvin to

109 Kelvin

Lepton epoch

1 second to
10 seconds
109 K
Note: QE temp higher

Photon epoch-Nucleosynthesis

10 seconds to
103 seconds to
1013 seconds
<380 ka
1011 Kelvin to
109 Kelvin to
103 Kelvin
10 MeV to
100 keV


Matter-dominated era

47 ka (47,000 years) to
10 Ga (10×109) years
104 Kelvin to
4 Kelvin


380 ka (380,000 years)
4000 Kelvin

Dark Ages

380 ka to
150 Ma (Mega-annus) or
150 million years
4000 Kelvin to
60 Kelvin

Stelliferous Era

150 Ma
(150 million years)
100 Ga
(150 billion years)
60 Kelvin to
0.03 Kelvin


~150 Ma to
1 Ga
>60 K to
19 K

Galaxy formation and evolution

1 Ga to 10 Ga
19 Kelvin to 4 Kelvin

Dark-energy-dominated era

>10 Ga
<4 K

Present time

13.8 Ga
2.7 Kelvin

Quiet Expansion (QE)

Notations 0-24

0 = Planck base units

Planck time:
5.39106×10−44 seconds
Notation 1: 1.0782−43 s
Notation 24: 1.809×10−36 (s)
Notation 0: 1.416×1032 Kelvin
Notation 1: 4.4×10-27 (K)
Notation 24: 3.69×10-20 (K)
Notation 0: 1.8×10-18 Coulombs
Notation 1: 3.7×10-18
Notation 24: 3.14×10-11 (C)

Notations 25 to 31

Notation 25: 1.8×10−36 seconds
Notation 31: 1.157×10−34 (s)
Notation 25: 6.29×10-11 (C)
Notation 31: 4.02×10-9 (C)

Notations 32 to 40

Notation 32: 2.31×10−34 seconds
Notation 40: 5.927×10−32 (s)
Notation 32: 1.89×10-19 Kelvin
Notation 40: 2.42×10-17 (K)
Notation 32: 6.94×10-26 meters
Notation 40: 1.77×10-23 (m)
Notation 32: 8.05×10-9 Coulombs
Notation 40: 2.06×10-6 (C)

Notations 41 to 104

Notation 41: 1.18×10−31 seconds
Notation 104: 1.09×10−12 (s)
Notation 41: 4.84×10-17 Kelvin
Notation 104: 4.47×102 (K)
(310K = 98.33°F, 36.85° C)

Notation 105 to 142

Notation 105: 2.18×10−12 (s)
Notation 142: 3.0×10−1 (s)
Notation 105: 8.94×102 Kelvin
Notation 142: 6.14×1013 (K)

Notations 143 to 147

Notation 143: 6.01×10−1 (s)
Notation 147: 9.61 (s)
Notation 143: 2.45×1014 Kelvin
Notation 147: 3.93×1015 (K)

Notations 147 to 154 to
Notation 187

Notation 147: 9.6185 seconds
Notation 154: 1231.1 (s)
Notation 187: 1.05×1013 (s)
or 10,575,741,215,500 (s)
or 320± thousand years
Notation 147: 3.932×1015 Kelvin
Notation 154: 5.03×1017 (K)
Notation 187: 4.32×1027 (K)
Notation 147: 3.346×1026 (C)
Notation 154: 4.28×1028 (C)
Notation 187: 3.67×1038 (C)

Notations 184 to 201

Notation 184: 1,321,967,651,940 seconds or 41,919.31 years
Notation 201: 10 billion years
Notation 184: 5.4×1026 Kelvin
Notation 201: 7.0×1031 (K)

Notations 187

10,575,741,215,500 (s)
320± thousand years
Notation 187: 3.6×1038 (C)

Notations 187 to 196

Notations 187: 320,000+ years
Notation 196:
171.2± million years
5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds
Notations 187: 4.3×1027 Kelvin
Notations 196: 2.2×1030 (K)

Notations 187 to 204+

Notation 196:
171.2± million years
Notation 204+:
Distant future
Notations 196: 2.2×1030 (K)
Notation 204: 1.416×1032 (K)

Notations 187 to 189

Notation 187: 1.05×1013 seconds
or 320± thousand years to
Notation 189: 1.3± million years
Notation 187: 4.32×1027 Kelvin
Notation 189: 1.72×1028 (K)

Notations 187 to
Notation 201+

Notation 189: 1.3± million years
Notation 201: 10 billion years

Notations 187 to
Notation 201+

Notation 201: 10 billion years
Notation 201: 7.08×1031 Kelvin

Notation 201+

Notation 201: 13.8 billion years
Notation 201: 7.08×1031 Kelvin
At the 41st notation there are 10,633,823,966,279,326,983,230,456,482,242,756,608 pointfree vertices. The base-2 simple doublings could be aggregating structure as groups or sets. Defined by the Planck base units, in the range 41-to-60, we hypothesize that these are the domains for archetypal relations and systems. There are 549,755,813,888 base-2 pointfree vertices at Notation 41 and 5,070,602,400,912,917,605,986,812,821,504 at Notation 104.

The bbt’s Quark Epoch generalizes 63 of the QE notations, from 41 to 104. These notations within the QE model are foundational so perhaps this comparison to Quark Epoch is a key. Consider the estimated requirement for temperature. The bbt epochs can not begin until the temperature is cool enough. Given that temperature requirement, within the QE model, the Quark Epoch would not begin until up-and-around Notation 136 where the temperature has finally risen to 1.9201×1012 Kelvin. If that is the right range, as suggested by proponents of the bbt, less than a second has transpired, the universe has a diameter of about 874 square miles and a mass of about 1.896×1032 kilograms.

Within the QE model from around Notations 65 to 69 is the transition from the small scale to the human scale. This “human scale” is the middle third of the 201 notations, i.e. 67-to-134. Even though two-thirds of the way through the 201 doublings, less than a second has transpired from the start.

In the Quark Epoch the bbt and QE begin to cross paths and overlap. Wikipedia says, “Quarks are bound into hadrons. Over the hadron epoch, the process of baryogenesis results in an elimination of anti-hadrons (baryon asymmetry).” As noted within Wikipedia, some of these perceptions come directly out of the laboratory, such as CERN in Geneva, where this phenomenon has been observed. So, other than the improbable placement within the time/temperature curve, all processes herein after become readily integrated within the QE model. The bbt and QE have overlapped and begun to become simpatico.

A key question within the QE model is, “What is a notation?” Also known as a cluster, doubling, group, layer, set, and/or step, each word is perspectival and each notation is dynamic, always in the process of being defined, right up to the current time within the 201st notation. Each notation has an active role in defining who we are and what this universe is; and, each notation has an active role in defining all other notations. Today, right now, all of these notations activelyf define humanity or the human scale (67-to-134), must therefore be something like the archetypes of forms and functions (notations 1-to-67) that define our deeper beingness. The notations from 134-to-200 define our planetary and galactic systems and this is where most of the work of those physicists, cosmologist, and astrophysicists have worked.

In just a few more notations, between 142 and 143, the universe is at the one second mark. This measurement is most often used to determine the speed of light. Yet, as noted in earlier postings, within every notation, the Planck length divided by the multiple of the Planck Time renders an approximation of the speed of light. It is just commonsense when we see that the speed of light plays prominently in the definitions of Planck Length and Planck Time.

The question to be answered, “What is the meaning of temperature? …within the bbt? Within the QE model, we impute that it is the total temperature throughout the area defined by the notation (or cluster, container, domain, doubling, group, layer, or step). This measurement within the Hadron Epoch within the bbt is now lower than it is within the QE. There is a natural correlation between all these numbers within the QE simply because they start with the same definitional characteristics (the Planck base units) and the evolution of those numbers using base-2 exponential notation. The ratio of length to temperature renders .73322+ ratio. That result is currently being analyzed, space-to-temperature or kelvin per meters.

In 1972 George Ellis and Stephen Hawking began to explore the boundary conditions that define our universe between 10-13 centimeters (elementary particles) and 1028 cm, the assumed radius of the universe. They did not approach the Planck base units which would have expanded their range to 1.616199×10−35 meters (Planck Length) and then it would have tucked them in at about 5.1942×1025 meters according to current best guesses regarding the Age of the Universe.


With very few exceptions, it was not until Frank Wilczek (MIT) wrote a series of articles,
in 2001, Scaling Mt. Planck, (Physics Today), did anybody think these Planck numbers amounted to anything more than numerology. It would take another ten more years before we would come along, naively doing our thing with base-2 exponential notation, so we are confident that all the proponents of the big bang have not engaged our quiet expansion model.

Earlier it was observed that the big bang is not good philosophy and it is bad psychology. Philosophy is taken as a study of first principles and systems, the universals and constants that create the boundary conditions as well as the continuity equations that bind our universe together. Since 1972, especially with the very key question about the very nature of the first microseconds, the bbt has not progressed very far. Their Planck epoch is still mysterious. It is bad psychology for that very reason. It is so disjointed, so out of touch with anything human, it de facto promotes a certain form of nihilism.

Theories should have elegance, beauty, coherence, and simplicity. Children should be able
to begin to understand. And with the QE, children quickly begin to understand 2 times 2.
We just have to carry it out a few more places for them.


Disclaimer: Our charts and discussion are our first time to make a comparative analysis
between the big bang theory (herein abbreviated bbt) and our Quiet Expansion (QE).
Silly errors are inevitable. We are neophytes, not scholars, within these fields,
so please point out any of our failures with logic, math, and physics. We will be most grateful.

This ends the first story about two very different models of the universe. Of course, it is a story that is to be continued.


Non-repeating, Never-ending Uniqueness


From order to chaos to order again, all built into this universe

Thomas Jefferson and the framers of the US Declaration of Independence captured a deep-seated truth about the very nature of the universe. They had intellectually and emotionally understood the importance of human freedom so they made a guarantee that all people should be free from bondage and enslavement. In that statement that had also intuited that such freedom is built-into the very design of the universe. The free will of the person runs deep.

Let’s see what we can learn about the design of the universe.

The most basic, simple object is the sphere. Deep within the sphere are the original non-repeating never-ending numbers. One might say, Pi“Here are the first openings, the initial pathways, between the finite and infinite.”

Here the perfect continuity of the infinite gives way to the Pi-unrolled-720.gifopenness, an inexplicable random-order, apparently never-ending, number generator of the most simple three-dimensional object in the universe. It is complex, but predictable. Built right into the most basic shape is
an open number, pi (π).  It seems to scream at us,
“Pay attention to the ratios. This number is irrational!
The ratio is the dynamic reality that captures the essence.”

Sphere to tetrahedron-octahedron couplet
Click on the spheres for more.

When the spheres are stacked and, as you can see demonstrated on the right, that stacking creates the forms for straight lines (lattices), triangles, tetrahedrons and octahedrons that perfectly enclose space. With just the tetrahedron and octahedron, you can tile the universe.

We started with the determinacy of the sphere, going within  to the indeterminacy within its inherent nature, and then going out, stacking multiple spheres, the result is a new  order of relations, spheres to the perfections within the tetrahedral-octahedral couplet.

Indeterminacy (non-repeating, apparently never-ending) is also built into other layers of the fabric of the universe.  There are constants and universals that define some of the most basic relations between things. Known as the fundamental physical constants such as the speed of light c, vacuum permittivity ε0, Planck constant h,  the gravitational constant G, the fine structure constant, αs, the coupling constant for the strong force and so many more are all pathways between the finite and infinite, from the perfect to the imperfect, from the unchangeable to the changing.

Yes, chaos is built into the universe in other very basic ways, yet it is time to stop and see what is going in in the world of science and research.  The big bang theory has been part of the culture since the 1920s.  It has been the dominant theory since 1975.  It allows an island of fundamental constants known as the Planck base units to rather meaninglessly drift in the ether.  Big Bang scholarship starts well beyond the Planck base units; and, until December 2011, there had been no path created between those numbers and our physical realities defined by the Standard Model.

The first path was just along the Planck Length. It was a precarious climb and very few chose to follow.  It wasn’t until a path up from the Planck Time was cut alongside the Planck Length did it seem like more than a fool’s dream.  When cuts were made for mass, charge, and temperature, it seemed a bit more ordered, but still quite idiosyncratic.

Today, there are plans to build super highways up from the Planck base units. Others are getting the vision that it just might be possible, a little like building a super highway over the Darién Gap, an impenetrable, deep rain forest between Panama and Columbia or the 51 miles across the Bering Strait (about 82 kilometres wide at its narrowest point) between Russia and the USA.

As unlikely and difficult as these things seem, it takes a vision to open the way.

In process…. More is on the way.  July 23, 2016

Thanks to Dee Hock and his friend, Alistair Fraser of New Zealand.

Walk a mile…


If we could all stop and walk in each others shoes, perhaps this world would be a better place.

If we all could come to understand that in less than 1000 years we were essentially from the same family, the world would be a better place.

And, if we could all stop just long enough to look at the entire universe and its utter simplicity and beauty, just maybe we could reign in our insanities before the value of life is further diminished. Things are always simple before they become complex. Simple logic is better than complex logic.

There are just over 200 base-2 exponential notations to encapsulate the universe, everything, everywhere, for all timeOnce we all begin to see the utterly exquisite order of our universe, perhaps we can see the potential to discover what is truly exquisite about our world and each other.

We live in a tiny-little place and there is no longer any room for elitism and arrogance, self-righteousness and self-aggrandizement. There is a better model and a better way. Our modest contributions to open the conversations further are herein linked.  Yes, indeed, we can do better.


The short link to this page: http://bit.ly/29P61x0

*Notes: This post went live at about 3 PM on Friday, July 15, 2016, with an image of Vincent Van Gogh’s A Pair of Shoes at the top. Within the hour a parcel arrived on our doorstep. It was a painting of my first shoes — and yes, those two shoes were in the package as well. The painting was a watercolor by my sister, Valerie Jeanne Camber Borgal. There’s some special synergy going on here. For now, it seems appropriate to replace Van Gogh’s image from the Vincent Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam with Valerie’s image, Bruce’s First Shoes.

Van Gogh’s shoes provide the bookends anticipating a discussion about the two artists’ spiritual quest. -BEC

E.O. Wilson

In December 2011 a group of high school people went inside the tetrahedron, dividing by 2, and found the half-sized tetras in the four corners and an octahedron in the middle.  We went inside that octahedron, dividing by 2, found the half-sized octas in each of the six corners and eight tetras in each face, all sharing a common center point. We kept going within all 19 objects.  Within just a few steps we found our nematode friends. In another few steps the prochlorococc greeted us, “Set em up baby…”


In just 45 steps within we were zipping by the fermions and protons and just kept going!  In the next 67 steps, you wouldn’t believe what we saw! We were at the door of a singularity that Max Planck gave us and all those secret codes, but it took 100 years and Frank Wilczek to begin to interpret them (2001, Physics Today, Scaling Mt. Planck I-III).

Just over 112 notations.  What was that?


It didn’t take too long before we got the bright idea, “Let’s multiply by 2.” What an epiphany! In less than 90 steps we were out to the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe. Looking at ourselves, we were lost within all this new information, so we decided to turn to the experts. Huh? We found Kees Boeke’s base-10 work from 1957 but he only had 40 quick jumps (Cosmic View) and missed so much of life!  We found Stephen Hawking but he was in tight with the bigga-banga-boomba (excuse me Bugs Bunny). Where are our experts?

What? Huh?  Our knowledge of the universe is so incomplete, our sense of the universal is so limited, our understanding of the constants is so elementary, we are flying blind.

The Encyclopedia of Life truly needs a wonderfully integrative, expansive container so it doesn’t get walled in!  Of course, its website opens it to our world.  Let’s open it to the universe.  Yes, a wall-less container where ideas and creativity can explode old boundary conditions and creatively new parameter sets emerge.

Now we are amateurs, but we really feel that biology and the search for life must begin with that initial creation, the first moment, when there was a profound integration, and come through it all right to the 200th notation to our present day.  Let’s encapsulate the universe so we can truly address the “… transcendent qualities in the human consciousness, and sense of human need” (from your Ted Talk).

Are we crazy?  Of course, we are, but hopefully delightfully so!


Most sincerely,


Bruce Camber

New Orleans



PS.  I grew up not far from the Peabody and all the glass flowers. My father was an HVAC machinist for the Mark I while my mother had been a nanny for Shady Hill characters.  -B

PS2.  In 2002, Wilczek reflects, “It therefore comes to seem that Planck’s magic mountain, born in fantasy and numerology, may well correspond to physical reality.” (PDF)

PS3. “Can’t you see, we are in a dialogue with the universe?” asks Charles Jencks.

Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess

Discovery is better than belief.

Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt, and Adam Riess shared the 2011 Nobel Prize in physics for their 1998 work to explain acceleration, i.e. the expansion of our Universe is accelerating.

On Sat, Jul 16, 2016 at 3:47 PM, from Bruce Camber


I am glad you had discovered that the universe is still expanding; it helps our little model of the universe using base-2 exponential notation from the Planck base units to the Age of the Universe. Even though that it is actually accelerating raises questions for us, it seems to raise even more questions about the big bang inflation. Our definition of inflation is built into that base-2 notation. It seems no one can tell us why it’s wrong; they can only tell us that it’s idiosyncratic. And, we’ll be the first to admit, it is!

I was talking with an information guru and friend, and he said,
“Discovery is better than belief.” I agreed. We had been talking
about the base-2 model and numbers and my references to Guth, Lightman, Wilczek and Langlands. He was sure that there would be some openness to look more closely
at the implications of base-2 for the big bang.

I was not so sure. The big bang theory has been king of the road for forty years!
Dark energy and dark matter, now that’s another story.

I seriously believe the Langlands programs will be of some help in the near future.

Here is my latest post about the madness within our little world:
Of course, your comments and suggestions are always welcomed.
Most sincerely,
Bruce Camber
New Orleans


Alan Guth, MIT

This note is a result of a posting about the so-called Inflationary Epoch
In 1978 and 1979  Alan Guth of MIT wrote groundbreaking works whereby
his concept of  The Inflationary Universe became part of the core anatomy
of the big bang theory. 

This note was sent to Prof Dr. Guth via email and it was titled, Inflationary processes:

July 6, 2016

TO: Prof. Dr. Alan Guth, Victor F. Weisskopf Professor of Physics, MIT

Dear Prof. Dr. Alan:

I was born in July 1947, so you are my senior; and, I write
with admiration and respect for what you have accomplished.

There is a special confidence that one gets from affirmations
especially from being published. It seems so very eternal.

My question comes out of work done in a high school geometry
class when we ducked inside a tetrahedron, found half-sized
tetrahedrons in the four corners and an octahedron in the middle.

We then went inside that octahedron, divided each edge by 2, and found
half-sized octas in each of the six corners and the tetras in each
of the eight faces. A perfect tessellation, it was easy to continue.
In about 40 jumps within, we were down among the protons.
In another 67 we were in a singularity with the Planck base units.

Feeling a little uncomfortably tight, we quickly multiplied
those base units by 2 and in 201 notations we were lost,
but looking at ourselves from out in-and-around
the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe.

Now, this is all happening just up river from New Orleans
Zoo, downriver from the NOLA international airport. We’re
just high school folks and the kids.

That was 2011. We rushed right by Kees Boeke, my old MIT
friend, Phil Morrison’s charge. When we included all
five Planck base units, it got very challenging.

1. Nobody talks about those 67 notations from the
fermion-proton range down to the first Planck base
units’ doublings.

“Much too small to be meaningful!”
say the kings and queens of physics.

Why? “Off with your head!” (in the spirit of Alice
in Wonderland’s Queen of Hearts).

2. Really now, if Max Planck found a path to such
small numbers (length, time, mass) and to the not
so small charge, and to an absolutely gargantuan temperature,
shouldn’t there be a way to get to them through with
a bit of simple logic and simple math?

Why not?

We’ve mapped it out in a large horizontal chart:
It’s rich with information, but it could be all wet.

Any advice for us literal abstractionists?

Most sincerely,
Bruce Camber
New Orleans

PS. Long ago, in 1976, I was the guest of Victor Weisskopf
at the MIT faculty club where I had arranged for a WSJ writer
to interview him for an ““A-Hed” article. It was to be about
how the chairman of the MIT physics department was involved
with the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in Rome. Though
the article was never published, Weisskopf invited me to
his home to review great artwork, some quite religious,
that challenged our understanding of space and time.

About six months later, on a trip to visit with folks in
Geneva at both CERN and the World Council of Churches,
Weisskopf arranged my first meeting with John Bell to
talk about the EPR paradox and his inequalities.

Then, in 1979, I had a display project under the dome
at 77 Massachusetts Avenue
called, “What is life?
after Schrodinger’s book of the same title. It was
an attempt to examine the first principles and answers
to the question by 77 leading, living scholars from around the world.
Jerome Wiesner buttonholed me at that time, “What’s this?”
thinking it was a right-to-life group! Such memories.

So, I am still wrestling with the same old questions!
These paragraphs from the preface of your book,
The Inflationary Universe, I enjoy:

The Inflationary Universe - Guth

Thanks. -BEC

Some of the more far-reaching implications of the Big Board-little universe model

Introduction.  The Big Board-little universe Project uses base-2 exponential notation from the singularity of the Planck base units going out to this present time, Right Now, to encapsulate everything, everywhere, throughout all time1. Though seemingly a bit of  an overstatement, the simple mathematics and logic appear to corroborate such a conclusion. The implications of this fledgling model seem rather far-reaching so five are presented for the discerning analysis and critical review of scholars and thinkers.

Some of the more far-reaching implications of the Big Board-little universe model:

  •  This model begs the question about the finite-infinite relation.  If space and time are derivative, finite, quantized and discrete, then what is infinite? Our working answer is continuity which creates order, symmetries which create relations, and harmonies (multiple symmetries working together) which create dynamics. These are the inherent qualities that define the infinite for science.2
  • There appears to be an ethical bias to the universe. Continuity-order, symmetry-relations, and harmony-dynamics also begin to define a valuation system whereby every notation at every moment has a perceived and dynamic value.3
  • Each notation defines an element of the current universe. Even though time is derivative, it still defines a duration within a single notation. Even though space is derivative, it still defines a length within which particular things have their beingness. In this model each notation has its own particular beingness. The entire universe actively appears to share this length (space) – time infrastructure within the small-scale universe.
  • The structure for homogeneity and isomorphism is defined within the small scale. It is also the bridge between the finite and infinite so renormalization works in quantum electrodynamics and universality works throughout physics on every scale.4
  • This model appears to trifurcate nature. These three seemingly natural domains of this model of the universe appear to be episodic:
    (1) The small scale from notation 1-to-67 could generally be described as ontology and each notation just might manifest again within the human scale and then again within the large scale.
    (2) Perhaps the human scale from notations 67 to 134 could be understood as the domain for epistemology. In some manner of speaking all 67 manifest in the notation for the current time.
    (3) The large scale from notation 134 to 201 is currently considered the domain for cosmology. It begins when the duration (or speed) is less than one second (see notations 142 to 143). Within notation 200 (possibly 201) is the current time.  Its duration is approximately 10.8 billion years.  The duration at notation 134 is within a thousandth of a second.

    Of course, each duration for each notation gets increasingly short as we approach the Planck Time. The duration at notation 67 is 10-to-the-negative-23 seconds (10-23).  Notation 67 is approximately the Planck Length multiple where fermions and protons appear.  There will be many adjustments of these numbers as others help to fine-tune the model.5

All people and things appear to be trifurcated.

One might hypothesize or hypostatize that from the small-scale universe we get our being. Systems are imputed between the 50th and 60th notation; and within systems, the human mind has also been imputed have notations within which to be.

From the human-scale we get our knowing.  Carl Jung called these archetypes.  A special vocabulary will emerge for this part of our self-definition.

Within the Now, this moment, today, there is an integration as a thing, an entity.  All human history, all civilization is within the 200th notation.  Just as an aside, if time travel were to become possible, it will be as an observer. Interactions would also require trifurcating, i.e. simultaneously entering the space and duration of the being and knowing of any given moment in time.

For more, consider these pages:

  1. The Big Board-little universe Project
  2. Top Ten Reasons Top Ten Reasons to give up those little worldviews for a much bigger and more inclusive UniverseView. These are the inherent qualities that define the infinite for science.
  3. Every moment has a perceived and dynamic value.
  4. An analysis of numbers
  5. A Simple View Of The Universe

Frank Wilczek

 The first letterFri, Dec 14, 2012 at 5:40 PM, “Help!”

March 24, 2016Work began at MIT, long ago!

From our LinkedIn blog:

Physics Today (MeadWilczek discussions – Ref.9): Though formulated in 1899 and 1900, the Planck Length received very little attention until 1959 when C. Alden Mead of the University of Minnesota submitted a paper proposing that the Planck Length and Planck Time should “…play a more fundamental role in physics.” Though published in Physical Review in 1964, very little positive feedback was forthcoming. Frank Wilczek in that 2001 Physics Today article comments that “…C. Alden Mead’s discussion is the earliest that I am aware of.” He posited the Planck constants as real realities within experimental constructs whereby these constants became more than mathematical curiosities.  More…

From a posting titled, “Could The Planck Length Be The Next Big Thing? Could Planck Time Be A Gateway To The Universe?”

Theories abound.
Oxford physicist-philosopher, Roger Penrose16 calls it, Conformal Cyclic Cosmology made popular within his book, Cycles of Time. In a September 24, 2008 interview on NBC News (Cosmic Log), Frank Wilczek of MIT simply calls this domain, the Grid,17 and the most complete review of it is within his book, The Lightness of Being. We know with just two years of work on this so-called Big Board – little universe chart and much less time on our compact table, we will be exploring those 60-to-65 initial steps most closely for years to come. This project will be in an early-stage development for a lifetime.  More…

From the web postings within the Big Board-little universe:

Notwithstanding, there is a substantial amount of work that has been done within the academic and scientific  communities with all the Planck numbers and those base numbers that were used to create the five Planck base units.  Perhaps chemistry professor, C. Alden Mead of the University of Minnesota began the process in 1959 when he first tried publishing a paper using the Planck units with serious scientific intent. Physics professor Frank Wilczek of MIT was the first to write popular articles about the Planck units in 2001 in Physics Today (312, 321, 328)From that year, the number of articles began to increase dramatically and experimental work that make use of these numbers has increased as a result.  More…