**Who**: The history of the Big Bang Theory (bbt) is highly documented. It is an intellectual cornerstone within experimental and theoretical physics, cosmology, and astrophysics.
**What**: To challenge the *bbt* appears foolhardy at best. Yet, there are many, many reasons to challenge it, but most of all because (1) it is overly complex and confusing, (2) it is not very good philosophy, and (3) it is very poor psychology.
**Why**: The first three key parts of the *bbt*, involving substantially less than a trillionth of a second, are based on hunches and a need to shoehorn data to support the model.
*Wikipedia* says, “Planck scale is beyond current physical theories; it has no predictive value. The Planck epoch is assumed (or theorized) to have been dominated by quantum effects of gravity.” **We say** that the Planck scale is the starting point for the initial 24 notations (*de facto* defined by the *bbt*) and that these notations are shared by everything, everywhere in the universe. Painfully aware of the limitations of our vocabulary, these first notations are considered to be archetypal forms, structure and substance. *Archetypal* is used in the sense of *the original pattern or model* by which all things of the same type are representations, the prototype, or a perfect example. For more, see each of the four pages (24 columns) encapsulating notations 1-24 (opens in a new window or tab).
Both models have made key assumptions. We believe the *QE* model is internally more consistent, imaginative, and stimulating.
**The key**: More than just the *bbt*‘s four forces of nature *within the Planck scale*, we *assume* a certain unification of all five Planck base units and those constants that define them, and that this unification is carried through the entire 201+ notations to the current time and present day (until proven to be otherwise). The Planck base units are defined by length, time, mass, temperature and charge. These Planck units are further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or *ħ* or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or *ε*_{0 } or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or *k*_{B} or *of temperature)*.
**The Planck scale is not beyond logic, numbers, and conceptual integrity.** Homogeneity, isotropy and simple logic rule. Yet, within the *Quiet Expansion (QE) *model, we have followed a simple logic and placed the Planck Temperature at the top of the scale, just beyond the 201st notation and then it goes down, approaching Absolute Zero. We are increasingly finding a simple relational logic between the Planck base units. Of course, this logic will be revisited with every future analysis of the *QE* model. Within the *QE* model, the Planck Charge, a Coulombs value, is taken as it is given. Within the *bbt*, the Planck Charge is ignored and the *bbt* value is postulated to be as large as possible. Their measurement is given in GeV units, one billion electron volts. Add 10^{16} zeroes to it and you have a charge unlike any other! It is the penultimate, grand assumption that truly requires a leap of faith!
To begin to understand all these numbers and their correlations, questions are asked, “Are these all non-repeating, never-ending numbers like Pi? Are all numbers that are non-repeating and never-ending somehow part of the infinite yet also the beginning of quantum mechanics?” The suggestion has been made that we carry out each number 10 decimal places, and if need be, 100 decimal places, and possibly even 1000 decimal places, to see if patterns can be discerned.
The *QE* model holds that things are simple before complex and everything is related to everything. Imputed, hypostatized and/or hypothesized are pointfree vertices and simple geometries as the deep infrastructure that gives rise to the work on combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (and the Feigenbaum’s constants), Langlands program, mereotopology ( point-free geometry), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory. Here are people working on theories and constructions of the simple, yet their concepts are anything but simple.
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**When**: In the very beginning… **Wikipedia says** that the Planck epoch requires speculative proposals, a “New Physics” such as “…the Hartle–Hawking initial state, string landscape, string gas cosmology, and the ekpyrotic universe.” Each is a conceptually-rich, dense jungle of ideas. Cutting through that entanglement is only for the highly-motivated and academically astute. Most of us will just go on to the grand unification epoch, in search of a logical system that builds consistently upon itself. About the *bbt* model, Wikipedia simply says, “The three forces of the Standard Model are unified.” Of course, the *QE* goes much further, however, first consider a *bbt* problem. Electromagnetism, gravitation, weak nuclear interaction, and strong nuclear interaction are most often related to relations defined above the 65th notation.
**Wikipedia says**, “Cosmic inflation expands space by *a factor of the order of 10*^{26} over a time of the order of 10^{−33} to 10^{−32} seconds.^{[1]} The universe is supercooled from about 10^{27} down to 10^{22} kelvins.^{[6]} The Strong Nuclear Force becomes distinct from the Electroweak Force.” ^{[1] }(Our emphasis) First, consider that the Planck Temperature is 1.416 83×10^{32} Kelvin. The *bbt * totally skips the cooling from 10^{32} to 10^{27} Kelvin. It does not address what causes the cooling to 10^{22} Kelvin. Also, consider the amount of expansion and the short duration assumed in their statement above. To create that much space in that short of an interval would require light to travel so far beyond its normal speed, it would constitute the penultimate anomaly.
Also, because the *bbt* begins at the Planck Temperature, they truly need a supercooled concept. With the *Quiet Expansion *these temperatures are all superconducting being well below the superconducting transition temperatures. Perhaps the very concept of temperature will become better understood as a result of our struggles to define a different model of the universe.
About this inflationary epoch, **Wikipedia says**, “The forces of the Standard Model have separated, but energies are too high for quarks to coalesce into hadrons, instead forming a quark-gluon plasma. These are the highest energies directly observable in experiment in the Large Hadron Collider.”
Within the *QE, *if a quark-gluon plasma requires **10**^{12} Kelvin, it is not possible until up around Notation 136 where the temperature is up to **1.92016×10**^{12} Kelvin. Notation 136 is 4.6965×10^{-3} seconds from the singularity. One second is between Notations 143 and 144. Also, the Kelvin scale is counter-intuitive in many ways. The temperature of the Sun is about 5,778 K. Within the *QE*, that is expressed between Notations 107 and 108 (7.153178×10^{3} K). The human temperature at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is 310.15 Kelvin which is between Notations 103 and 104 *(*4.47073×10^{2} K*). *Also, at Notation 103 we find the* Planck Length* is now .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10^{-4} meters or about the size of a* human egg.*
The exacting nature of the correlations between the multiples of the Planck base units is just being explored for the first time. Within the *QE *everything everywhere is related through simple mathematics*.*
**In Wikipedia**, their category experts say, “The physics of the electroweak epoch is less speculative and much better understood than the physics of previous periods of the early universe. The existence of W and Z bosons has been demonstrated, and other predictions of electroweak theory have been experimentally verified.”
Finally the the *bbt* gives us something that isn’t incomplete or highly speculative. Yet, even with such assurance, the logic of the *bbt* is difficult to follow. Again, within the *QE* model the only duration that would allow for W and Z bosons is about 30 notations away, somewhere around notation 65. There is just not enough “conceptual” space and time for elementary particles and their effects.
By the way, within this simple, highly-integrated progression, there is *the first measurement* that has a visceral meaning for us. At Notation 32 the mass of the universe is 93.48 kilograms or about 206 pounds. By Notation 40 it is up to 2.39×10^{4} kilograms. The universe is bulking up quickly and it is creating space and time as it goes.
Also, consider this unusual concept: within every notation, the *QE* model aggregates base-8 pointfree vertices using scaling laws and dimensional analysis (recommended by Prof. Dr. Freeman Dyson). There are single line entries for both the base-2 and base-8 progressions within the horizontally-scrolled chart.
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