Some of the more far-reaching implications of the Big Board-little universe model

Introduction.  The Big Board-little universe Project uses base-2 exponential notation from the singularity of the Planck base units going out to this present time, Right Now, to encapsulate everything, everywhere, throughout all time1. Though seemingly a bit of  an overstatement, the simple mathematics and logic appear to corroborate such a conclusion. The implications of this fledgling model seem rather far-reaching so five are presented for the discerning analysis and critical review of scholars and thinkers.

Some of the more far-reaching implications of the Big Board-little universe model:

  •  This model begs the question about the finite-infinite relation.  If space and time are derivative, finite, quantized and discrete, then what is infinite? Our working answer is continuity which creates order, symmetries which create relations, and harmonies (multiple symmetries working together) which create dynamics. These are the inherent qualities that define the infinite for science.2
  • There appears to be an ethical bias to the universe. Continuity-order, symmetry-relations, and harmony-dynamics also begin to define a valuation system whereby every notation at every moment has a perceived and dynamic value.3
  • Each notation defines an element of the current universe. Even though time is derivative, it still defines a duration within a single notation. Even though space is derivative, it still defines a length within which particular things have their beingness. In this model each notation has its own particular beingness. The entire universe actively appears to share this length (space) – time infrastructure within the small-scale universe.
  • The structure for homogeneity and isomorphism is defined within the small scale. It is also the bridge between the finite and infinite so renormalization works in quantum electrodynamics and universality works throughout physics on every scale.4
  • This model appears to trifurcate nature. These three seemingly natural domains of this model of the universe appear to be episodic:
    (1) The small scale from notation 1-to-67 could generally be described as ontology and each notation just might manifest again within the human scale and then again within the large scale.
    (2) Perhaps the human scale from notations 67 to 134 could be understood as the domain for epistemology. In some manner of speaking all 67 manifest in the notation for the current time.
    (3) The large scale from notation 134 to 201 is currently considered the domain for cosmology. It begins when the duration (or speed) is less than one second (see notations 142 to 143). Within notation 200 (possibly 201) is the current time.  Its duration is approximately 10.8 billion years.  The duration at notation 134 is within a thousandth of a second.

    Of course, each duration for each notation gets increasingly short as we approach the Planck Time. The duration at notation 67 is 10-to-the-negative-23 seconds (10-23).  Notation 67 is approximately the Planck Length multiple where fermions and protons appear.  There will be many adjustments of these numbers as others help to fine-tune the model.5

All people and things appear to be trifurcated.

One might hypothesize or hypostatize that from the small-scale universe we get our being. Systems are imputed between the 50th and 60th notation; and within systems, the human mind has also been imputed have notations within which to be.

From the human-scale we get our knowing.  Carl Jung called these archetypes.  A special vocabulary will emerge for this part of our self-definition.

Within the Now, this moment, today, there is an integration as a thing, an entity.  All human history, all civilization is within the 200th notation.  Just as an aside, if time travel were to become possible, it will be as an observer. Interactions would also require trifurcating, i.e. simultaneously entering the space and duration of the being and knowing of any given moment in time.

For more, consider these pages:

  1. The Big Board-little universe Project
  2. Top Ten Reasons Top Ten Reasons to give up those little worldviews for a much bigger and more inclusive UniverseView. These are the inherent qualities that define the infinite for science.
  3. Every moment has a perceived and dynamic value.
  4. An analysis of numbers
  5. A Simple View Of The Universe

On getting beyond religious boundaries

Why Religion? Which Religion?

To you who call yourself religious,
you may call yourself by a particular name,
Christian, Jew, or Muslim (Abrahamic faiths), or
Bahá’í, Buddhist, Hindu, Jain, Sikh (Indo-European religions) or
Confucian, Taoist, or one of many different specially-defined, local groups of believers: Though my focus is on the first three groups because the tensions between them are so high and they are influencing the character of our little world, I write to all who have faith in God or many Gods.Here the literal interpretation of your religious texts will be questioned and challenged. Yes, the literal interpretation, whether it is of the Bible, the Qur’an, or the Tanakh or any other Religious Writings (and all the other associated religious documents with each), is limiting our depth of thought.

Fundamentalism and literalism make the same mistake no matter what the belief system. The frameworks for interpretation are limited.

Terrorists and warriors take the historic writings within their holy books and use-and-abuse them to justify the most ungodly behavior. The universal writings of the these books reflect God. The historic writings reflect humanity.

Within the Abrahamic traditions, there is Allah, Jehovah, and Yahweh. For those of us from non-Arab-speaking countries, Allah is the Arabic word for God. To discern which writing is historic (finite) and which is universal (infinite) is the work for scholars. It is hard work, called exegesis, and the discipline is called hermeneutics.

There are many ways to know your God, also known as the Infinite, the Perfect, the One, the Creator, the Sustainer, the Imminent, the Transcendent, the Omnipotent, the Omnipresent, Omnibenevolent

All of the historic documents, especially all those lines-and-paragraphs within your Religious Writings that reflect the tensions of their unique times within which the words were written, need to be set aside as the history of a particular time. The universal writings, all the lines-and-paragraphs within your Religious Writings that are timeless, not in any way time-stamped, must be developed as a basis for a working faith.*

To discern between the historic and the universal is the key to our global future.

There are many groups and movements within Abrahamic faiths that have not done exegetical and hermeneutical work.

Within Christianity there is the KKK, the Christian Identity Movement, the Arayan Nations, and many more. Within Islam that includes movements like Salafism, the Muslim Brotherhood, al-Qaida, Hezbollah, Taliban, ISIL, Boko Haram, Al-Shabaab and any others who believe, “Allah is our objective… death for the sake of Allah is our wish.” Within Judaism there is the Jewish Underground which includes informal groups like Price Tag, and more formal groups like Kach, Kahane Chai, and the Bat Ayin Underground.

To know about your God, one must read sacred texts. To know the face of God, one must study those elements within the sciences and mathematics that are universal and constant. And, those texts with no time stamp within our Religious Writings truly reveal the very nature of the God who creates and sustains. Here is a guide:

•    The first form that defines our very being, our intelligence and our humanity is continuity, and its most basic function, a simple perfection, is to create order.  In the traditions of the Abrahamic faiths — Judaism, Christianity, and Islam — this is the Creator-Sustainer God. Any order, that creates continuity, is a metaphor as well as a direct expression for the Creator-Sustainer God. Anything that creates order is from God. Anything that creates disorder is not from God, but from man.

•    The second form is symmetry and in its perfection functions to create relations. In the Abrahamic tradition the perfection of that symmetry is the love doctrine, i.e., to love God with all one’s heart, soul, mind and strength, and one’s neighbor as oneself.  Any symmetry that creates real relations is a metaphor and a direct expression of the presence of the Love of God. Anything that breaks relations is from man.

•    The third form is dynamics and its perfection, a complex symmetry extended within time, is harmony. Again, in the Abrahamic tradition, the gift of God’s Spirit transcending a moment in space and time to create a profound joy, deep insight, compelling love… simply a moment of perfection. Any dynamic experienced as a harmony is a metaphor, albeit the real presence, of God’s Spirit within that moment.

Every scientific and religious assertion, both seeking to understand and define the universal, begins with the same first principle and evolves within its own understanding to the second and third. Therefore we have a diversity of faith statements which includes all of the sciences.

This is also the basis of the value chain. The more perfect a moment or an experience is, OR the more perfected a thing or system is, the more valuable it becomes.  Thus, we have the beginnings of business. Here is the baseline beginning of value and values.

Any assertion that counters life’s evolving perfections is not religion (at best, it’s a cult*); it is also not business (it’s exploitation or a bad company); certainly it is not good government; and most often, it is not even good science.

My bottom line conclusion is simple, “Let us open another front within this epic battle with any and all people who cause the death of another.”

Thank you.   – Bruce Camber

For more, please consider these pages:

*Back in 2006, while working on our television series, Small Business School, I proposed a book to the Oxford University Press people, The Synoptic Scriptures of the Christians, Jews and Muslims. They found it interesting, but not compelling enough. It still should be done!

Editor’s note: An early form of this post was a letter, originally written on the 3rd of March 2015 to Barack Hussein Obama, President, USA, and Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister, Israel. It was then updated on Monday, December 28, 2015 to include Ali Khamanei, Ayatollah Seyyed, Iran. It was sent via those links embedded within their names (on that page) on February 10, 2016.

Martin Rees, Astronomer

As part of our effort to discern the Top Numbers of Key Importance within our little universe for The Big Board-little universe Project, we have begun to study the work of Lord Sir Martin Rees of Oxford, particularly his book of the title, Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces That Shape the Universe, 1999, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London (173 pages)

His six numbers are:

  1. N, the ratio of the strength of the electrical force to the gravitational force (reviewer, Peter Roberts, Visions.
  2. ε (epsilon)( definition of limits?)
  3. Ω (omega), measures the amount of material in the universe
  4.  λ (lambda) (?)
  5. Q,  the degree of structure in the universe
  6. D, the number of spatial dimensions, 3

Here is what Wikipedia says:

Martin Rees’s Six Numbers:

“Martin Rees, in his book Just Six Numbers, mulls over the following six dimensionless constants, whose values he deems fundamental to present-day physical theory and the known structure of the universe:

“N and ε govern the fundamental interactions of physics. The other constants (D excepted) govern the size, age, and expansion of the universe. These five constants must be estimated empirically. D, on the other hand, is necessarily a nonzero natural number and cannot be measured. Hence most physicists would not deem it a dimensionless physical constant of the sort discussed in this entry.

“Any plausible fundamental physical theory must be consistent with these six constants, and must either derive their values from the mathematics of the theory, or accept their values as empirical.”

“A long-sought goal of theoretical physics is to find first principles from which all of the fundamental dimensionless constants can be calculated and compared to the measured values.”

What Did We Ever Do Without Our Universe View?

1957: The Beginnings of a somewhat Integrated Universe View

In 1957 Kees Boeke’s book, Cosmic Vision, The Universe in 40 Jumps, was published; it was the first integrated view of the known universe. He could have but did not engage the Planck base units. He could have, but did not consider any geometric calculations. Yet, he did get the attention of prominent scientists including Nobel-laureate, Arthur Compton. Thereafter, the Eames film, the Phylis and Philip Morrison book, Powers of Ten, the IMAX (Smithsonian) movie (guide), and the Huang’s scale of the universe opened this conceptual door for anyone who chose to walk through it.  Anyone could begin to have an integrated view using base-10 notation of the entire universe. It was a fundamental paradigm shift; all the attention given to it has been justified.

Most of the world’s people live within what we might call, their OwnView.  Even though subjective and often quite naïve, the elitists and the solipsistic and narcissistic among us, lift up that view as the best view, the only view, and/or the right view.

If and when we start to grow up, spread our wings and begin to explore beyond our horizons, we develop an objective view of the world.  As we integrate more and more facets of our subjective and objective views, it begins to qualify as a WorldView (in the spirit of the old Weltanschauung).

In light of Boeke’s work, the next step for all of us is to bring whatever WorldView we have, and see how it fits and works within a view of the entire universe. Kees Boeke’s work is historically the very first UniverseView. Although Boeke only had 40 jumps and used base-10 exponential notation, it is still the first systematic view of the entire Universe.

2011:  A Second Universe View Emerges From Another High School

A high school geometry class just up river from the French Quarter of New Orleans developed what appears to be the second systematic UniverseView.  It is quite a bit more granular than Boeke’s work and it originated from the students’ work with simple embedded and nested geometries. Using base-2 exponential notation this  group emerged with about 202+ doublings, layers, notations, or steps from the Planck Length  to the Observable Universe.  Eventually beside each length, the calculations from the Planck Time out to the Age of the Universe were added.

This fully-integrated UniverseView first emerged in December 2011 and was officially dubbed, “Big Board – little universe.” One of the initial boards was over eight feet high and the second and third generations were around 60 inches high.  The entire universe, mathematically-and-geometrically related within 200 or so notations, seemed to bring the universe down to a manageable size!

Now, what do we do with it?

The first thought was that this UniverseView with its 200+ notations could be a good container for Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics (STEM) education.  It puts everything in the known universe within a simple ordering system.  Then, in January 2012, in the process of trying to find scholarly references to understand the foundations of their work, the students and their teachers discovered Kees Boeke.  In so many ways, it was a vindication — “Somebody had been here before us.”  Yet, even with all the fanfare around Boeke’s work, not too much was done to extract meaning from that model.

The base-2 model is quite different. It has simple geometries and a more granular mathematics.  The students and teachers thought this ordering system might help to answer those historic queries by Immanuel Kant about (1) who we are, (2) why we are, (3) where we are going, and (4)  the meaning and value of life.

Given this model has a starting point and an end point, the students and teachers opted to see the universe as finite.  Always encouraging students to go deeper in their understanding of mathematics, their teacher, Bruce Camber, commented To engage the Infinite it appears that we hold the objective and subjective in a creative balance and that balance is called geometry, calculus and algebra through which we can more fully discover relations.”

Boeke’s base-10 work has an important role in history.  It gave the human family a starting point to see an ordered universe.  The base-2 model takes the next step. Instead of just adding or subtracting zeroes, it adds 3.333 times more steps or doublings. It provides more data to explore the simplest continuities, relations and dynamics within and between each notation.  Base-2 is the heart and spirit of cellular division, chemical bonding, complexification (1 & 2), and bifurcation.

Perhaps it is here that the academic community might begin to create a truly relational, integrated and functional UniverseView. Surely it is here that we find the rough-and-tumble within science.

So, although base-2 UniverseView is the second UniverseView, it seems to hold some promise.  And though these are preliminary models,  just a crack in the doorway, what a sweet and simple opening it is.  Perhaps Kepler would be proud.

This high school group is now just starting to discover the work of  real-and-graciously-open scholars.  With the help of this larger academic community, our work just might  somehow capture the spirit of one of the world great physicists throughout history, John Wheeler, when he said, “Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, that when we grasp it — in a decade, a century, or a millennium — we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise? How could we have been so stupid for so long?” 


Dark Matter, Cosmology and the Large-Scale Universe

First draft. In process. Your feedback is key.  Last update: January 19, 2016

Yes, today is Thursday, November 26, 2015. Paris is healing. Al-Raqqah is burning. And, without question, we all need a new model of who we are and why we are. There is simply too much darkness within this world and within our views of the universe.

Many people are aware that we have been on a speculative journey 1 that began in 2011 in a high school. Our journey is based on an idiosyncratic way of looking at our universe.2 Everything, everywhere, throughout all time is contained within just over 201 base-2 exponential notations from the Planck Base Units out to their largest possible measurements, always “this given moment”  or the Now.  Although our charts are simple, logical, and comprehensive,  and all the numbers show us an exquisitely interconnected universe, they challenge some of our commonsense worldviews.

It is not easy to change one’s conceptual frame of reference. Oftentimes I feel a little slow because it becomes so difficult to put one-and-one and two-and-two together. But, we are motivated to break through the bottleneck of questions that have remained unanswered over our lifetime and throughout the centuries. We are pushed to ask, “What are we missing?” Taunting myself, I say, “Go over this one more time; you really are missing something here.”

Dark Matter and Dark Energy are in that camp for me. Yet, recently a faint light has come on. A new book by physicist, Lisa Randall, had become a subject of a discussion over lunch.  The subjects of cosmology have always been way out there for me. Since childhood, especially on the occasion of a dark, clear Maine night, I have had a visceral reaction to it all. Spooked, jammed and suffocated by the vastness of the seemingly infinite universe, truly impossible to take it in, I learned to avoid cosmology and astronomy.

Dark Matter 3, 4 (links that go to Wikipedia open new tabs or windows).  I had begun thinking that Dark Matter was a misnomer. Within the Big Board – little universe model, it is not dark per se, especially if part of the first 60 notations where there is an absence of light. Within our isotropic and homogeneous universe, space-time-charge-mass-and-temperature have a tightly-woven fabric, tiled and tessellated defined by base-2 exponential notation and the Planck Base Units.

Though associated with analyses of structures on the order of galactic scale, Dark Matter may best be seen within the context of all 201+ base-2 notations, yet especially the first 60 or so notations.

Everything, everywhere, throughout all time.  That is the simple mathematical model we call the Big Board-little universe.  We can see that space and time are contained.  We can see a very simple beginning  and we see-experience-feel the current time.  We have our seeing-experiencing-feeling moments within the current time which is within the 201st notation.  We have the physical definition of parts, for now I call these our physical archetypes  between the 67th and 116th notations within the Human-Scale Universe.  Our most essential being, the archetypes of our archetypes, are within the small-scale universe. Everything-everywhere-throughout-time has some kind of presence with the small-scale, human-scale, and large-scale universe. 

There will be many challenges ahead to texture, define and defend such statements especially given that Dark Matter now constitutes only as much as 26% of the universe.5   Out of our naïveté, it just may be that our simple model, this Big Board – little universe,  gives Dark Matter a space and time, mass and charge, and a reason for being, and for being where it is.Gold & Diamonds

I believe our little chart is like a gold and diamond mine because the key figures of the universe are all there just waiting to be examined.  These figures have been given a cursory review.  It is now time for the professionals to go in and take a hard look.  I believe we can find configurations within those first 60 notations that can give rise to the observations and research throughout the entire history of cosmology and astronomy.

Most speculative:  The small-scale universe is the human-scale universe is the large-scale-universe. It is discrete, quantized and derivative of continuities and symmetries and even an overarching harmony of the universe. Within this speculative journey we are defined by every notation. Our particularity and humanity come out within the 101 to 116th of the Planck Length but we are fully at the 201+ notation within “the moment” or “the now.”

A special challenge will be to  come up with a better name than Dark Matter.  Although the inherent continuity equation for those 201+ notations has classic characteristics generally used to describe God, here we will rely strictly on the simple logic and mathematics, the Planck Base Units, and basic geometries to create the parameters for our naming convention.

Dark Energy. Though this conceptual frame of reference is related to the expansion of the universe, and dark energy weighs in at 68.3% of the total energy in today’s observable universe, we would postulate that it, too, is related through the Planck Base Units and the systemic expansions within the first 60 steps of the Big Board – little universe model. Light (a light second) does not appear until the 143 notation; that requires another 80 or so steps or notations or doublings from those first 60.

Projections. It has been almost four years since we began the discussions about our charts of the Big Board – little universe.  It was only three years ago that we were encouraged to continue our study of the Planck Base Units by Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek6,7 of MIT (a world-renown physicist and champion of Planck’s work). In December 2014 Planck Time was added to the chart.  Then, in February 2015 the other Planck base units were included.

Obviously, for me, concepts need time to incubate.

First, as uneven as we are, I hope we are getting closer to justifying to the academic communities to come in to take a look at the inherent structures of the first 60 notations. To begin examining how those first 60 notations came to be and why they have been ignored, we have begun to focus on all the research and all the data from cubic-close packing (ccp), face-centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close-packed (hcp), root system (A3) and Lie theory. It seems that all these applications and functions apply to the first 60 notations. And, inside those first 60 steps come all the dimensionless constants and soon thereafter, all the physical constants, and soon thereafter, the fermions and every expression of physicality.

That’s a rough outline within which our research of the first 60 notations will proceed. Now, where’s Lisa Randall 8 this morning and what has she been saying about dinosaurs?

Thank you.


1  Speculative journey, dubbed the Big Board – little universe, began in December 2011 in our high school geometry classes.
2  Idiosyncratic way of looking at our universe is actually based on simplicity itself. In December 2014, Planck Time was added alongside the Planck Length. That was filled with pleasant surprises. Then in February 2015, the Planck Mass, Planck Charge, and Planck Temperature were added.
3,4,5  Dark Matter is the subject of many scholarly articles.  The Wikipedia entries, however, are straightforward, easy reading:
6,7  Prof. Dr. Frank WilczekThroughout December 2011 and then throughout the following year, I asked literally hundreds of people, “Can you responsibly multiply the Planck Length by 2?” In December 2012, we got a response, an answer from Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek,  “One can certainly divide (or multiply) by two repeatedly, and generate different numbers or scales, just as one can with powers of ten.”
8 Many years ago, back when we were doing our weekly television productions, I called and talked with Lisa Randall about doing a PBS-special about her book, Warped Passages. She had been inundated with such proposals. Subsequently, in 2012, I sent a note to ask about the cogency of our base-2 model. We had been told by an astute-but-young theoretical physicist (who asked to remain anonymous) that our work was idiosyncratic, but he wasn’t quite ready to say that it was not even wrong. We’ve asked some of the finest scientists from around the world and the brave among them in some way said, “Carry on (…but please don’t quote me).”

Lisa’s new book, Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs: The Astounding Interconnectedness of the Universe, reaches the same general conclusion as we do about the connectedness of the universe, yet I am rather confident that she would distance herself from our work and the reasons for our conclusion!


A few of the articles that have been written over the years.  These are all being updated and consolidated here.

Pi equals 3.1415926535897932384626433832795028…


An arc of a circle with the same length as the radius of that circle corresponds to an angle of 1 radian.

A full circle corresponds to an angle of 2π radians.


  1. Pi is a constant.
  2. Pi is an irrational number.
  3. Pi is a transcendental number.
  4. Pi is a non-repeating number – no pattern has been identified using computer analysis within over twelve trillion places.
  5. Pi ( π ) is the exact ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.   It is that simple.

Thank you, Wikipedia, for the graphics (above) that demonstrate this simple definition.  There are over 45 Wikipedia articles about pi.

So, what do you make of it?  What is going on?

Perhaps a few more questions and comments would help.

  1. What is it about a circle and sphere that pi is always-always- always true?
  2. How does a number become a constant, irrational and transcendental all at the same time?
  3. Let us compare pi to other unique numbers that have a special role among all numbers.  These are e, 0, 1, and I. They are all magical, but π stands out. So, let’s ask, “What are the shared qualities of these numbers?” Let’s study them to see if we can find any necessary relations.
  4. We have the ratio between a circle and a line. Perhaps this is the fundamental transformation between the finite and infinite? Are circles and spheres always implicating or imputing the infinite?

That is a big question and enough to ponder for awhile.

Notwithstanding, there are many more questions to ask.

Some speculations: Pi may be the key to unlock the small-scale universe within the big Board-little universe
1.   To get to the application of pi  within the Planck Units, we’ll need to emerge from the singularity of the Planck Units.  Is the radian a key to understanding this process?  First, a radius is extended from the singularity.  A radius extends into the preconditions for space and time, a now emergent small-scale universe. It makes that first arc equal to its own length.  It does it again and again and again and again and again (six radians) and then makes that last leap, 2 pi, to complete the circle. Is this a reasonable scenario? Why? Why not?

2. We need to run through dozens of scenarios, often, and slowly and carefully.  What scenarios are perfect and obvious?

3. We are at the singularity of the Planck Units.  We are establishing the foundations for the physical world.  If all things start simply, this must be the place to start.  It doesn’t get more simple and more mysterious. Nothing is a mistake, everything comes from a perfection to a space-time moment, so what could possibly happen?

What happens within the first six doublings?    (to be continued)

For further discussion:
1.  Is the Small-scale Universe the basis for the homogeneity and isotropy of space and time?
2.  Does everything in the universe share some part of the Small-Scale universe?
3.  How is Planck Temperature calculated?  Does it begin with the other Planck Units and expand from that figure at the first notation?

Note:  All of human history has occurred in the last doubling.  Yet, all doublings remain active and current and dynamic.  Continuity trumps time. Symmetries trump space.

What does sleep have to do with anything?  If all time is current, within the moment, we particularize by the day and uniquely within a given waking day.  Sleep seems to bring us into the infinite.  Dreams seem to be the helter-skelter bridge between the finite and infinite.  It seems that these naïve thoughts are worth exploring further.

This Shifting Paradigm Changes Our Perception Of Everything

Editor’s note:  This page was first posted within Small Business School, a television series that aired for over 50 seasons on PBS-TV stations (1994-2012).  It is the author’s business website, so many of the links go to that Small Business School website.    Eventually all links will be redirected to pages within The Big Board – little universe Project.


Background: Our study of the Planck Length to the Observable Universe began formally on December 19, 2011. Though we thought about the matrix from the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe, it took until December 8, 2014 to add it the Planck Length chart. Logically, but non-intuitively, the two tracked well together. Based on that work, we started looking at our own foundations for understanding first principles, universals and constants.

First, our television series began in 1994 based on first principles (linked from here). These were a direct reflection of our faith and our belief that faith and science must cohere or one of them is wrong.

Second, we used those first principles in all that we have done. That’s how one knows the first principles work. Yet, eventually, those first principles inform in new ways. It is not automatic. It takes time. But, there is always a next step. We can always improve on the initial conditions.

Third, we all need to extend our principles globally, then extend them throughout the universe. That drove our work on the Big Board-little universe back which started in December 2011.And oddly enough, we can now see how such principles just might become the core of a new small business revolution.

Here is a paradigm shift that just might change our perceptions of everything.

1. The Universe appears to be finite. That’s huge. It has measurable smallest units for space and time. It has measurable units for the largest dimensions of space and time, the Observable Universe and the Age of the Universe, respectively.More

2. The Universe has an ethical bias. Yes, hard to believe, but it seems to be true. If so, the theological among us have some very real work to do because theology will be informed by science and science will actually be informed by theology. And, those within radical Islam will learn that they still have much to learn from their Allah and our science!

3. The Universe is smaller and more ordered than we think.In 202+ steps, you go from the smallest measurement to the very largest.Initially it sounded ridiculous and it seemed inconceivable, yet over time, it sinks in.

4. The Universe is more connected than we think. In fact, everything is related to everything, all within 202+ steps! Seems impossible; it’s not.

5. The Universe gets structure from space-and-time, but not its essence. The structures go back to basic geometries that have become exquisitely complex (Also, see reference #4). One might conclude that the essence of that structure comes from the Infinite through our constants and universals which appear to be best engaged through the Planck Units.

Now, with all these references, we now say, “Let’s get focused; there are great things to do to get us all on track for a brilliant future.”

Planck Time to the Age of The Universe alongside Planck Length to The Observable Universe

Early in December 2014 we started this page to follow-up that earlier work on just the Planck Length. We began that effort three years earlier (December 2011) in our local high school’s geometry classes. Because we will continue to find obvious errors (from simple mathematics to our interpretation) of the chart below, this page will be subject to frequent updates.

Background: We had been asking around the scholarly community, “Has anyone done a progression of the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe using base-2 exponential notation (a fancy way of saying, multiplying by 2)?” We did it from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe and had wanted to compare that progression to Planck Time.

Going from the smallest to the largest is a simple ordering logic. Using Max Planck’s smallest possible measurements to go to the known limits seems like an exercise high school students should do.

Here we introduce the simple math from the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe.

In July 2014, Prof. Dr. Gerard ‘t Hooft and Stefan Vandoren published a very helpful book, Time in Powers of Ten, a base-10 chart. We were looking for a base-2 chart which would be 3.333+ times more granular. We could not find it anywhere so this page is our working draft, our starting point.

Perhaps it goes without saying… as you read this note, I appeal to you to ask questions and make comments and suggestions. Thank you. –Bruce Camber

Planck Time is the smallest possible unit of measurement of time. The ratios of all 201+ multiples of the Planck Time to its respective multiple of Planck Length is consistent across the chart.  The original calculations were done by Max Planck in and around 1899. This chart of 201+ notations was done in December 2014. Any numbers smaller than the Planck Time are just numbers that cannot be meaningfully applied to anything.

Planck got his Nobel Prize in 1918 for his discovery of energy quanta. He was also a mentor and friend of Einstein (who received his Nobel Prize in 1921).

The Planck Length and Planck Time are actual values that can be multiplied by 2.
Of course, if one were to multiply each by 2 over and over again, you can assume that you would reach their outer limits. That process looks a bit tedious. After all, the Age of the Universe is somewhere over 13.8+ billion years and the Observable Universe is millions of light years from common sense. Yet, rather surprisingly, to complete that effort doesn’t require thousands of doublings. It is done in somewhere just over 201+ doublings.

That is so surprising, the doublings for both are charted below.

These doublings do kind-of, sort-of end up in sync. Where there is a problem, we assume it is within our simple math. Considering the duration and the length, and the nature of very large measurements, for all intents and purposes, they are synced mathematically. We’ve got a bit of work to do to sync them up intellectually!

Though these charts will be tweaked substantially, the best place to start is at the notations (or doublings) that define a day, a week and a year (in Planck Time units) to see how each corresponds with the distance light travels in Planck Length units, i.e. a light year, “light week,” and “light day.” These are our first baby steps of analysis. How many hundreds of steps are there to go to discern all the faces of its meaning? Who knows? From here, we will continue to look to see what meaning and relation evolves at a particular notation where one column appears to impart value to the other. Just on the surface, this chart seems to suggest that there are other possible views of the nature of space and time where order (sequence), continuity, symmetries, and relations seem to play a more fundamental role.

Science and our common sense worldview assume the primordial nature of space and time. As a result of our work with the Planck Units, we hold that conclusion up for further inspection. How do things appear as one begins to approach a synchronized Planck Length and Planck Time?

Planck Units: As we add more Planck Units to this chart, what else might we see? What might we learn? So, we will add mass, electric charge, and temperature to these listings. And then, we’ll add the derived Planck Units (12) and then ask, “Is there anything more we can do to establish a range from the smallest to the largest? What might a comparative analysis at each doubling reveal to us?” We don’t know, however, we are on a path to explore! We’ll report in right here.

At this point, we are attempting to learn enough to make a few somewhat educated guesses about the nature of things within these scales of the universe.

So, as a result of where we are today, I think it is okay to ask the question, “What would the universe look like if space and time were derivative of order-continuity and relation-symmetry, and of ratios where the subject-object are constantly in tension?”

This stream of consciousness continues at the very bottom of this chart.

Planck Time Doublings:
Primarily in Seconds
Planck Length Doublings:
Primarily in Meters

The Age of the Universe:
13.78 to 13.8 billion years

It appears that we currently live in the earliest part of 201 doubling.

Observable Universe: 8.8×10(26) m Planck Multiple: 8.31×1026 m

4.155×1026 m Future Universe

203 6.9309178×1017 seconds (21.9777+ billion years) 2.077×1026 m Future Universe
202 346,545,888,147,200,000 seconds (10.9888+ billion years) 1.03885326×1026 m Observable Universe
201 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds (5.49444+ billion years) (1017) 5.19426632×1025 m
In this model: Time is discrete so to know how many years are to be aggregated (to see how close we are to the Age of the Universe), each notation must be added together. By the 200th notation, we would be one Planck Time unit shy of 10.9888 billion years. A possible conclusion could therefore be that we are within the 201st notations.
200 86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds (2.747+ billion years) 2.59713316×1025 m
199 43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds (1.3736+ billion years) 1.29856658×1025 m
198 21,659,118,009,200,000 seconds (686.806+ million years) 6.49283305×1024 m
197 10,829,559,004,600,000 seconds (342.4+ million years) (1016) 3.24641644×1024 m
196 5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds (171.2+ million years) 1.62320822×1024 m
195 2,707,389,751,160,000 seconds (85.6+ million years) 8.11604112×1023 m
194 1,353,694,875,580,000 seconds (42.8+ million years) (1015) 4.05802056×1023 m
193 676,847,437,792,000 seconds (21.4+ million years) 2.02901033×1023 m
192 338,423,718,896,000 seconds (10.724+ million years) 1.01450514×1023 m
191 169,211,859,448,000 seconds (5.3+ million years) (1014) 5.07252568×1022 m
190 84,605,929,724,000 seconds (2.6+ million years) 2.5362629×1022 m
189 42,302,964,862,000 seconds (1.3+ million years) 1.26813145×1022 m
188 21,151,482,431,000 seconds (640+ thousand years) 6.34065727×1021 m
187 10,575,741,215,500 seconds (320+ thousand years) (1013) 3.17032864×1021 m or 3 Zettameters or 310,000 ly
186 5,287,870,607,760 seconds (160+ thousand years) 1.58516432×1021 m or about 150,000 ly (1.5z)
185 2,643,935,303,880 seconds (83.7+ thousand years) 7.92582136×1020 m
184 1,321,967,651,940 seconds (41.8+ thousand years) (1012) 3.96291068×1020 m
183 660,983,825,972 seconds (20.9+ thousand years) 1.981455338×1020 m
182 330,491,912,986 seconds (or about 10,472.9 years) 9.90727664×1019 meters
181 165,245,956,493 seconds (1011) 4.95363832×1019 m
180 82,622,978,246.4 seconds 2.47681916×1019 m
179 41,311,489,123.2 seconds 1.23840958×1019 m
178 20,655,744,561.6 seconds 6.19204792×1018 m
177 10,327,872,280.8 seconds (1010) 3.09602396×1018 m
176 5,163,936,140.4 seconds 1.54801198×1018 m
175 2,581,968,070.2 seconds 7.74005992×1017 m
174 1,290,984,035.1 seconds (109) 3.87002996×1017 m
173 645,492,017.552 seconds 1.93501504×1017 m
172 322,746,008.776 seconds 9.67507488×1016 m
171 161,373,004.388 seconds (108) 4.83753744×1016 m
170 80,686,502.194 seconds 2.41876872×1016 m
169 40,343,251.097 sec (466 days)(Note: 31,536,000 s/year) 1.20938436×1016 m
Comments: A light year is about 9.4605284×1015 meters (Google) or 9,460,730,472,580,800 metres “exactly” (Wikipedia). Use the Gregorian calendar (circa 1582) where a year is 365.2425 and the speed of light is given as 299,792,458 metres/second, the calculation is 365.2425 times 86400 seconds/day (or 31556952 seconds/year) times 299,792,458 meters/second or 9.4605362+×1015 meters. Discrepancies would become quite large at the size of the Observable Universe and the Age of the Known Universe.Using Planck Units:
One Light Year 9.45994265715×1015m
168 20,171,625.5485 seconds (233.468 days) 6.0469218×1015 m [one light year (ly) is 9.4×1015 m]
167 10,085,812.7742 seconds (116.73 days) (107) 3.0234609×1015 m
166 5,042,906.38712 seconds (58.36+) 1.5117305×1015 m
165 2,521,453.19356 s (29.1835 days) 7.55865224×1014 m
164 1,260,726.59678 s (14.59+ days) (106) 3.77932612×1014 m
163 630,363.29839 s (7.29+ days) 1.88966306×1014 m (about 7-day light travel)
162 315,181.649195 seconds (3.64794 days) 9.44831528×1013 m
161 157,590.824 s (1.82 days) (105) 4.72415764×1013 m
160 78,795.4122988 s (.911984 days) 2.36207882×1013 m (or close to 24-hour light travel)
159 39,397.7061494 seconds 1.18103945×1013 m
158 19,698.8530747 seconds (104) 5.90519726×1012 m
157 9849.42653735 seconds 2.95259863×1012 m ()
156 4924.71326867 seconds(3600 s in hour) 1.47629931×1012 m
155 2462.35663434 seconds 738,149,657 kilometers 1011
154 1231.17831717 seconds (103) 369,074,829 kilometers 1011
153 615.589158584 seconds (10.259+ minutes) 184,537,414 kilometers 1011
152 307.794579292 seconds 92,268,707.1 kilometers (range of earth-to-sun)1010m
151 153.897289646 seconds (102) 46,134,353.6 kilometers 1010
150 76.948644823 s (16+ sec over 1 min) 23,067,176.8 kilometers 1010
Comments: A light minute is, of course, sixty times 299,792.458 km/second. Again, using simple mathematics, the distance light travels in one minute is 17,987,547.48 which is about 1000 kilometers off of 17,986,420.0329 km/second using the simple mathematics of this chart. This difference will be further analyzed.
149 38.4743224115 s (21.53 sec to 1 min) 11,533,588.4 kilometers 1010
148 19.2371612058 seconds 101 5,766,794.2 kilometers 109
147 9.61858060288 seconds 2,883,397.1 kilometers 109
146 4.80929030144 seconds 1,441,698.55 kilometers 109 m
145 2.40464515072 seconds 720,849.264 kilometers 108
144 1.20232257536 s (1s ≠ perfect tp multiple)
One Second:
360,424.632 kilometers 108 meters
Speed of light equals 299,792,458 m/s
Comments: Science knows experimentally that light travels 299,792.458 km/second (a light second). A Planck Time multiple, either 1.202 seconds or .6011 seconds, could be used as a standard unit of time that is based on a theoretical constant. We will explore further the calculations for a day, week, month and year based on such a system. We’ll also explore it in light of recent work to define the theoretical chronon.
A Light Second 299,792.458 km
143 6.0116128768×10−1 seconds 180,212.316 kilometers (111,979+ miles) 108 m
142 3.0058064384×10−1 seconds 90,106.158 kilometers 107 m
141 1.5029032192×10−1 seconds 45,053.079 kilometers 107
140 7.514516096×10−2 seconds 22,526.5398 kilometers 107
139 3.757258048 × 10−2 seconds 11,263.2699 kilometers or about 7000 miles
138 1.878629024 × 10−2 seconds 5631.63496 kilometers 106
137 9.39314512 × 10−3 seconds 2815.81748 kilometers 106

The transition from the Human-Scale to the Large-Scale Universe

136 4.69657256 × 10−3 seconds 1407.90874 kilometers (about 874 miles) 106 m
135 2.34828628 × 10−3 seconds 703.954368 kilometers 105
134 1.174143145978 × 10−3 seconds 351.977184 kilometers (218.7 miles) 105
133 5.8707157335 × 10−4 seconds 175.988592 kilometers (109.35 miles) 105
132 2.93535786675 × 10−4 seconds 87.994296 kilometers 104
131 1.46767893338 × 10−4 seconds 43.997148 kilometers 104
130 7.33839466688 × 10−5 seconds 21.998574 kilometers104
129 3.66919733344 × 10−5 seconds 10.999287 kilometers or within 6.83464 miles 104
128 1.83459866672× 10−5 seconds 5.49964348 kilometers 103
127 9.1729933336 × 10−6 seconds 2.74982174 kilometers 103
126 4.5864966668 × 10−6 seconds 1.37491087 kilometers 103
125 2.2932483334 × 10−6 seconds 687.455439 meters 102
124 1.1466241667 × 10−6 seconds 343.72772 meters or about 1128 feet 102
123 5.73312083348 × 10−7 seconds 171.86386 meters or about 563 feet 102
122 2.86656041674 × 10−7 seconds 85.9319296 meters 101
121 1.43328020837 × 10−7 s 42.9659648 meters 101
120 7.16640104186 × 10−8 sec 21.4829824 meters 101
119 3.58320052093 × 10−8 sec 10.7414912 meters or 35.24 feet or 1.074×101 m 101
118 1.79160026046 × 10−8 seconds 5.3707456 meters 100
117 8.95800130232 × 10−9 seconds 2.6853728 meters or 105.723 inches 100
116 4.47900065116 × 10−9 seconds 1.3426864 meters or 52.86 inches 100
115 2.23950032558 × 10−9 seconds 67.1343176 cm (19.68+ inches or 6.71×10-1
114 1.11975016279 × 10−9 seconds 33.5671588 centimeters or 3.356×10-1 m)
113 5.59875081396 × 10−10 seconds 16.7835794 centimeters or 1.6783×10-1
112 2.79937540698 × 10−10 seconds 8.39178968 cm (3.3+ inches or 8.39×10-2 m)
111 1.39968770349 × 10−10 seconds 4.19589484 centimeters 4.19589484×10-2 m
1109 .99843851744 × 10−11 seconds 2.09794742 centimeters or 2.0979×10-2 m
1098 3.49921925872 × 10−11 seconds 1.04897 centimeters or 1.04897375×10-2 m
108 1.74960962936 × 10−11 seconds 5.24486856 mm (about 1/4 inch) or 5.24×10-3 m
107 8.7480481468 × 10−12 seconds 2.62243428 millimeters or 2.62243428×10-3 m
106 4.3740240734 × 10−12 seconds 1.31121714 millimeters 1.31121714×10-3 m
105 2.1870120367 ×10−12 seconds .655608568 millimeters or 6.55608568×10-4 m
104 1.09350601835 ×10−12 seconds .327804284 millimeter or 3.27804284 x10-4 m
103 5.46753009176 ×10−13 seconds .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10-4 m
102 2.73376504588 × 10−13 seconds 81.9510712 microns or 81.9510712 x10-5 m
101 1.36688252294 × 10−13 seconds 40.9755356 microns or 4.09755356 x10-5 m
100 6.83441261472 × 10−14 seconds 20.4877678 microns or 2.04877678×10-5 m
99 3.41720630736 × 10−14 seconds 10.2438839 microns or 1.02438839×10-5 m
98 1.70860315368 × 10−14 seconds 5.12194196 microns (.0002+ inches or 5.12×10-6 m)
97 8.5430157684 × 10−15 seconds 2.56097098 microns or 2.56097098×10-6 m
96 4.2715078842 × 10−15 seconds 1.28048549 microns or 1.2804854×10-6 m
95 2.1357539421 × 10−15 seconds 640.242744 nanometers 6.40242744×10-7m
94 1.06787697105 × 10−15 seconds 320.121372 nanometers 3.20121372×10-7 m
93 5.33938485524 × 10−16 seconds 160.060686 nanometers or 1.6×10-7 m
92 2.66969242762 × 10−16 seconds 80.0303432 nanometers or 8.0×10-8 m
91 1.33484621381 × 10−16 seconds 40.0151716 nanometers or 4.0×10-8 m
90 6.67423106904 × 10−17 seconds 20.0075858 nanometers or 2.0×10-8 m
89 3.33711553452 × 10−17 seconds 1.00037929×10-8 meters or 10 nanometers
88 1.66855776 × 10−17 seconds (smallest measurement – 2010) 5.00189644×10-9 meters
87 8.34278883632 × 10−18 seconds 2.50094822 nanometers or 2.50094822×10-9 m
86 4.17139441816 × 10−18 seconds 1.25474112 nanometers or 1.25×10-9 m
85 2.08569720908 × 10−18 seconds .625237056 nanometers or 6.25237056×10-10 m
84 1.04284860454 × 10−18 seconds .312618528 nanometers or 3.12×10-10 m
83 5.21424302272 × 10−19 seconds .156309264 nanometers or 1.563×10-10 m
82 2.60712151136 × 10−19 seconds 7.81546348×10-11 m
81 1.30356075568 × 10−19 seconds 3.90773174×10-11 m
80 6.5178037784 × 10−20 seconds 1.95386587×10-11 m
79 3.2589018892 × 10−20 seconds 9.76932936×10-12 m
78 1.6294509446 × 10−20 seconds 4.88466468×10-12 m
77 8.147254723 × 10−21 seconds 2.44233234×10-12 m
76 4.0736273615 × 10−21 seconds 1.22116617×10-12 m
75 2.03681368075 × 10−21 seconds 6.10583084×10-13 m
74 1.01840684038 × 10−21 seconds 3.05291542×10-13 m
73 5.09203420188 × 10−22 seconds 1.52645771×10-13 m
72 2.54601710094 × 10−22 seconds 7.63228856×10-14 m
71 1.27300855047 × 10−22 seconds 3.81614428×10-14 m
70 6.36504275236 × 10−23 seconds 1.90807214×10-14 m
69 3.18252137618 × 10−23 seconds 9.54036072×10-15 m
68 1.59126068809 × 10−23 seconds 4.77018036×10-15 m

Transition from the Small-Scale Universe to the Human-Scale Universe

67 7.95630344044 × 10−24 seconds 2.38509018×10-15 m
66 3.97815172022 × 10−24 seconds 1.19254509×10-15 m
65 1.98907586011 × 10−24 seconds 5.96272544×10-16 m
64 9.94537930056 × 10−25 seconds 2.98136272×10-16 m
63 4.97268965028 × 10−25 seconds 1.49068136×10-16 m
62 2.48634482514 × 10−25 seconds 7.45340678×10-17 m
61 1.24317241257 × 10−25 seconds 3.72670339×10-17 m
60 6.21586206284 × 10−26 seconds 1.86335169×10-17 m
59 3.10793103142 × 10−26 seconds 9.31675848×10-18 m
58 1.55396551571 × 10−26 seconds 4.65837924×10-18 m
57 7.76982757856 × 10−27 seconds 2.32918962×10-18 m
56 3.88491378928 × 10−27 seconds 1.16459481×10-18 m
55 1.94245689464 × 10−27 seconds 5.82297404×10-19 m
54 9.7122844732 × 10−28 seconds 2.91148702×10-19 m
53 4.8561422366 × 10−28 seconds 1.45574351×10-19 m
52 2.4280711183 × 10−28 seconds 7.27871756×10-20 m
51 1.21403555915 × 10−28 seconds 3.63935878×10-20 m
50 6.07017779576 × 10−29 seconds 1.81967939×10-20 m
49 3.03508889788 × 10−29 seconds 9.09839696×10-21 m
48 1.51754444894 × 10−29 seconds 4.54919848×10-21 m
47 7.58772224468 × 10−30 seconds 2.27459924×10-21 m
46 3.79386112234 × 10−30 seconds 1.13729962×10-21 m
45 1.89693056117 × 10−30 seconds 5.68649812×10-22 m
44 9.48465280584 × 10−31 seconds 2.84324906×10-22 m
43 4.74232640292 × 10−31 seconds 1.42162453×10-22 m
42 2.37116320146 × 10−31 seconds 7.10812264×10-23 m
41 1.18558160073 × 10−31 seconds 3.55406132×10-23 m
40 5.92790800364 × 10−32 seconds 1.7770306×10-23m
39 2.96395400182 × 10−32 seconds 8.88515328×10-24m
38 1.48197700091 × 10−32 seconds 4.44257664×10-24 m
37 7.40988500456 × 10−33 seconds 2.22128832×10-24m
36 3.70494250228 × 10−33 seconds 1.11064416×10-24m
35 1.85247125114 × 10−33 seconds 5.5532208×10-25m
34 9.26235625568 × 10−34 seconds 2.7766104×10-25m
33 4.63117812784× 10−34 seconds 1.3883052×10-25m
32 2.315589×10-34 seconds 6.94152599×10-26 meters
31 1.15779453196× 10−34 seconds 3.47076299×10-26m
30 5.78897265978 × 10−35 seconds 1.735381494×10-26 m
29 2.89448632989 × 10−35 seconds 8.67690749×10-27 m
28 1.44724316494 × 10−35 seconds 4.3384537×10-27 m
27 7.23621582472 × 10-36 seconds 2.16922687×10-27 m
26 3.61810791236 × 10−36 seconds 1.0846134×10-27 m
25 1.80905395618 × 10−36 seconds 5.42306718×10-28 m
24 9.045269781089 × 10−37 seconds 2.711533591×10-28 m
23 4.522263489044 × 10−37 seconds 1.35576679×10-28 m
22 2.26131744522 × 10−37 seconds 6.77883397×10-29 m
21 1.13065872261 × 10−37 seconds 3.38941698×10-29 meters
20 5.65329361306 × 10−38 seconds 1.69470849×10-29 meters
19 2.82646806528 ×10−38 seconds 8.47354247×10-30 meters
18 1.41323403264 ×10−38 seconds 4.2367712×10-30 m
17 7.0661701632 × 10−39 seconds 2.11838561×10-30 m
16 3.530850816 × 10−39 seconds 1.0591928×10-30 m
15 1.7665425408 × 10−39 seconds 5.29596404×10-31 m
14 8.832712704 × 10−40seconds 2.64798202×10-31 m
13 4.416356352 × 10−40 seconds 1.32399101×10-31 m
12 2.208178176 × 10−40 seconds 6.619955ƒx10-32 m
11 1.104089088 × 10−40 seconds 3.30997752×10-32 m
10 5.52044544 × 10−41 seconds 1.65498876×10-32 m
9 2.76022272 × 10−41 seconds 8.27494384×10-33 m
8 1.38011136 × 10−41 seconds 4.1374719232×10-33 m
7 6.9005568 × 10−42 seconds 2.0687359616×10-33 m
6 3.4502784 × 10−42 seconds 1.03436798×10-33 m
5 1.7251392 × 10−42 seconds 5.1718399×10-34 m
4 8.625696 × 10−43 seconds 2.58591995×10-34 m
3 4.312848 × 10−43 seconds 1.29295997×10-34 m
2 2.156424 × 10−43 s The second doubling 6.46479988×10-35 meters
1 1.078212 × 10−43 s The first doubling 3.23239994×10-35 m The first doubling, step, or layer.
5.39106(32)×10−44 seconds 1.616199(97)x10-35 meters

The Planck Time

The Planck Length

Endnotes:1. We are in the process of refining this chart and will be throughout 2015 and 2016.

2. Our very first calculation with the Planck Length column (December 2011), resulted in 209 doublings! We found several errors. Then , with help of a NASA astrophysicist, Joe Kolecki (now retired), we updated our postings with his calculation of 202.34. Then, a French Observatory astrophysicist, Jean-Pierre Luminet, calculated 205.1 doublings. We are very open to all ideas and efforts! We are studying the foundations of foundations. One might call it a hypostatic science based on the simplest mathematics, simple geometries and observations about the way the universe coheres.

One might say, “The Finite is finite, the Infinite is the Infinite, and the constants and universals describe the boundary conditions and transformations between each. One manifests a panoply of perfections; the other has only momentary instants of perfection.”

Open Questions: Is it possible that Planck Length starts first and Planck Time begins on Planck Length’s 2nd or 3rd notation? Could there be a two for one at the beginning and at the transitions? By using experimental speed of light per second, can we force the Planck units from that point? If the ratio of Length/time is consistent across the grid (and it is), how do we fine tune this chart?

What is a second?

What are Planck Units?

What is time?

What is a meter?

What is length?

What is space?

What happens just before the Planck time at 10-44 seconds? Theorists say that all of the four fundamental forces are presumed to have been unified into one force. All matter, energy, space and time “explode” from the original singularity.

3. Our online “Google” calculator often rounds up the last digit. It is usually beyond the eleventh postion to the right of the decimal point.

4. For more about this place and time, go to Hyperphysics (Georgia State):

5. A copy of this chart has also been published in the following locations:




d. ResearchGate Documents: 3052, 3054, 3056

Could The Planck Base Units Open A Secret Door To A New Universe Of Knowledge?

Five Planck Base Units Science is filled with mysterious numbers that defy logic and explanation. Among them are extremely small numbers that were introduced in 1899. Largely ignored for over 100 years, today these Planck Units have opened a rather magical pathway that has a little potential to become a new study within the sciences. Some might think it is a science of the mind. Though possibly true, it could be much more. (new window).

CurtisHere the old-fashioned thought experiment could become a new art form. A little high school, not far from the levee along the Mississippi River, a little up river from the French Quarter but downriver from the New Orleans airport, has big dreams and plenty of brains-and-brawn. Yet, never did they expect to be the place where base-2 exponential notation from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe and from the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe would be birthed. The fateful day was December 19, 2011, the last day of classes before their Christmas holiday recess and it begged the question, “Could this possibly be the beginnings of a very simple model for everything, everywhere, for all times?” More

For five groups of students who were studying the basic tenets of geometry, a strange thing happened. They saw the entire universe and parts of the unknown universe all at one time, all interrelated on one board, and organized by (1) a simple logic, (2) the Planck Length, (3) simple geometries and (4) simple mathematics (multiplying and dividing by 2). Just over 201 doublings captured our entire known universe. More

Just over 201 notations. What does it mean? What difference does it make? The first insight was that there is a deep-seated order in the universe. The order is imputed. It comes from logic and mathematics not from experimentation and measurement. Although it creates a special continuity from the smallest to the largest measurements of space and time, they can only say for sure, “Here it is,” then ask questions such as “What is wrong with this picture?” Very quickly, fifteen more key questions were raised. Third, also imputed are structural relations that create a diversity of symmetries that literally bind everything in the known universe. That’s quite an achievement unto itself, but it must be defended with facts that have some basis in reality.  More

Hardly intimidated, this group believes that the facts are, by and large, self evident and that there is so much more to discover and learn. More


Located in River Ridge (a hamlet just downriver from the airport), the Curtis School is well-known among the football quarters, not within  the studies of cosmology and astrophysics. Though there are rumblings and a very small scientific group moving away from the Big Bang Theory, this little  group within the school could land a tackle that suddenly causes this leading intellectual theory to stop in its tracks. If their map of the universe is truly a new domain of science, the human mind may end up taking its rightful place of importance within their grid that begins to redefine who we are and why. More…

That is enough, but there is more.To date, science has had very little to say about values and ethics, You can hear the pragmatists say, “Those are not measurable qualities.” And they would be right, yet here, if the inherent structure of science is order-continuity and relations-symmetry, extended logically, it could become a structure for value and even for a moment of perfection within what appears to be a finite universe. Two symmetries interacting over time, give us the first dynamical moments that have a harmony which unto itself is a compelling infrastructure for valuation and ethics. More…

Also, deep in the heart of this discussion is the place of the finite-and-infinite, and geometry-and-calculus. The old world of geometry gave us a special grounding. Structure was everything. Then, the newer world of calculus came in and slowly began to give us a new sense of change, openness, and a very long vision. People thought they could see forever. Professor Max Planck was 41 years old when he did those special calculations back in 1899. He was 60 years old when in 1918 he received his Nobel Prize for his work to define a quanta of energy. By 1944, now 87 years old, he penned these few special words that could set the stage for a science of the Mind. More

Throughout it all, his precious Planck Units had been virtually ignored. It wasn’t until 2001 before his earlier calculations, now over 100 years old, began to see the light of day. In a series of three articles in Physics Today. Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek of MIT (Nobel laureate, 2004) acknowledged their presence and potential importance. Finally, the Planck numbers gained a little respect as the conceptual limits on the smallest side of every equation. It seemed to suggest a way to begin to see the universe as a finite place. Rather suddenly Planck’s work gained a solid foothold. Also, science had advanced far enough to begin to suggest that there are upper boundaries as well. For the first time in centuries, the finite was gaining ground; the infinite seemed more ephemeral. The kids had plenty of ideas and comments. “This is a great STEM tool. Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics all makes sense here.” Another said, “Let’s keep the small “I” of the infinite so all our atheist friends have something in which to believe so they don’t have to believe.” More

Our “Planck students” soon discovered that they were not alone in their sense that the universe could be reduced to simple, logical working principles. In 1957 in Holland a little-known high school teacher, Kees Boeke, wrote a very short book, Cosmic Vision, The Universe in 40 Jumps. In 1962 a film was made about it and then in 1965 a coffee table book was published. By 2001, the scholarly community had become Boeke.png
familiar with base-10 notation. The River Ridge group was just getting to know him. They quickly acknowledged that Boeke’s book was the very first universe view. But because he only found 40 of 62 base-10 notations, it was dubbed “universe-view light.”Yet, base-10 has an important place in this discovery process and work with it is still being done. In July 2014, Gerard ‘t Hooft and Stephan Vandoren published a book, Time in the Powers of TenOf course, base-2 is much more granular (3.3333 times) and mimics cellular reproduction on one hand and chemical bonding on the other. More importantly, this base-2 work is rooted within the Planck base units and basic geometries where space and time are seen working together throughout the 201+ notations that define our universe. More.

There are several next steps. A few students (and their teacher) speculate:
Let’s make a movie about it that focuses on our most speculative guesses.”
Let’s focus on that small-scale universe and try to figure it out. There are doctoral dissertations in there.
“Let’s get other schools involved and promote this simple model as a powerful STeEM (Science-Technology-[Education]-Engineering-Technology) tool. (A link will be forthcoming)*

Endnote: The following Max Planck quote is currently linked to the place where the source pages are housed in Berlin at a place called the Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft: “All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together. We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind. This mind is the matrix of all matter.” (opens in a new window)From “The Nature of Matter” within the Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Abt. Va, Rep. 11 Planck, Nr. 1797, 1944

Back to top